02 May 2009

Early Black American Settlers Great Falls MT 1886-1920

Compiled by Ken Robison
Historian
Overholser Historical Research Center
Fort Benton, Montana


A Tribute to the Founding of the African American Community in Great Falls

Don’t look to the history books to learn the story of the early African American community in Great Falls. That story simply hasn’t been written, but when it is I am convinced that it will reveal a vibrant and complex black community operating within the opportunities and constraints of the larger community during the decade from the arrival of the first black resident of Great Falls in 1886 until 1896.

The constraints on the early black community in Great Falls loomed large, though they paled in comparison with the repression of Ku Klux Klan and counter-reconstruction darkness in the southern and border states. As the town of Great Falls began to grow rapidly from 1886, the first blacks arrived mostly from southern and border states to find constraints on jobs, housing, union membership, social and political opportunities. They found a tense environment shortly after the formation of Cascade County in the fall of 1887, when a white mob in Sun River held the first and last vigilante lynching in the county of a black soldier from Fort Shaw.

Despite the constraints, the fledgling black community found opportunities in the new town. Jobs in the growing service industry were available. Home ownership was possible in the south side section of the city populated by workers of all races. A separate social structure emerged with a church and fraternal organizations. City streets were basically safe and secure. Both political parties encouraged African American political activities, especially the strong "Lincoln" wing of the Republican party led by the dynamic owner and manager of the Great Falls Leader, H. P. Rolfe.

Newspaper coverage of black community activities by The Leader, and to a lesser extent, by its older rival, Great Falls Tribune, was remarkably detailed and positive. The relatively balanced reporting by both newspapers enables a glimpse into life and activities in the black community. What that community accomplished in the early years of Great Falls is revealing.

Proudly standing on the south side of Great Falls is an elegant symbol of what blacks did with their newly won freedom in the early days of Great Falls. That symbol is the Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) church. From the arrival of Edward Simms in 1886, efforts began to build a Christian community. As their numbers grew to 85 black residents by 1890, leading blacks of Great Falls formed an A.M.E. congregation, meeting at the first city fire station. The following year, through the appeal of church women including Mrs. Tennie Finn Hagen and Mrs. Mamie Courtney, and under the guidance of a talented minister, Reverend Joel H. Childress, a lot was donated by the Paris Gibson, and an A.M.E. church was built at 916 Fifth Avenue South. In the words of Rev. Childress, "The negro is becoming educated, acquiring property, learning self-government and self-respect. The touch of freedom which he now enjoys . . . defies trespass or encroachment upon it from any man or nation." Ministers from the mainline Presbyterian and Methodist churches participated in cornerstone laying ceremonies in June 1890. The A. M. E. Church long served as the soul of the black community in Great Falls, and at the "heart" of the church were black women.

Separated and segregated from the white community in many ways, the black community worked hard to overcome isolation. For housing, the black community shared the south side of Great Falls, from 2nd Street to 14th Street South and from 1st Avenue to 10th Avenue South with workers of all ethnic origins. Black Masonic, Odd Fellows, and other societies and clubs were formed. Black women centered their social life on the A. M. E. Church with frequent dinners and other fundraising activities.

Exemplifying early black residents are the three original trustees of the A. M. E. Church, Edward Simms, A. W. Ray, and William M. Morgan. Ed Simms came to Montana from Arkansas in 1882, worked for the post trader at Fort Shaw until 1886 when he and his wife moved to Great Falls. Simms opened a restaurant, built a house on the south side, and became active in every aspect of community activities including Republican Party politics. Sergeant Albert W. Ray was discharged from the 25th Infantry ("Colored") Regiment at Fort Shaw in 1890, moved to Great Falls, built a house on the south side, and actively participated in the community. William M. Morgan built a house on the south side in 1890 and became a highly respected member of the community, serving as Great Falls constable and later homesteading. All three men formed families, owned homes, acquired jobs, and became respected beyond the black community.

On New Year’s Day 1892, a grand ball and banquet was held in Great Falls by about one hundred African Americans and an equal number of white supporters. The celebration honored the 29th anniversary of the day the Emancipation Proclamation took effect. In the extensive coverage carried in the Great Falls Leader, the affair was held "to celebrate the auspicious morning when Abraham Lincoln, by a stroke of his pen, backed by the sabre strokes of the gallant armies which he commanded as president of the United States struck the shackles from 4,000,000 slaves and transformed them into free men and citizens." In the late evening both black and white orators increased the political rhetoric, with Republican political activist, H. P. Rolfe giving a fiery speech commemorating the "grand act of the first republican president of the United States, ‘Honest Old Abe.’”

Most male leaders in the black community were active in Republican Party politics, which tended to dominate the overall political landscape in Great Falls in the early years despite the adherence of Paris Gibson and many in the city’s establishment to the Democratic party. Yet, Republicans could not take the loyalty of black voters for granted. In 1892 Democrats made inroads in the black vote with two remarkable initiatives: first, naming a black candidate to their party’s general election ballot; and second, by founding the first black newspaper in Montana. Black man, John E. Little, was named one of two Democrat candidates for Great Falls townsite constable. While both Democrat candidates were defeated in the November election, Little’s nomination may represent a first for any black in Montana. The second Democrat initiative led to the publication of a black weekly newspaper, The Advocate, during the fall of 1892 to help capture the black vote. However short-lived, this newspaper represents the first black newspaper known in Montana.

In the 1894 election, blacks again threatened to turn to the Democrats, but this time the Republicans had learned their lesson about holding the black vote. Republicans nominated a pillar in the black community, William M. Morgan, as one of their two candidates for constable. Morgan went to bed one evening in early November 1894 after working that day as janitor at the Cascade county courthouse. The next day, he received 503 votes to defeat two Democratic Party opponents and win election as one of two constables for Great Falls. This marks the first known public election of a black candidate to office in Montana.

The story of young black policeman, George Williams, is remarkable. Williams served on the fledgling Great Falls police force during 1892 and 1893. One of four men on the force assigned zones of the City, Williams patrolled the "whites-only" north side of Great Falls. Inexplicably, not only did black patrolman Williams patrol the north side, but he even resided there—the only black known to live outside the south side.

These black achievements in early Great Falls are simply a sampling leading toward the present day. Blacks played a role and contributed to every aspect of Great Falls life with more recent examples including: Brother Van speaking at the Emancipation Day celebration in 1910 at the Union Bethel Church; black soldiers parading down Central Avenue in the fall of 1917 on their way to war; black night clubs like the Ozark Club with fine quality jazz music contributing to the nightlife in the city; black women, Mrs. Alma Jacob and others, working to break down civil rights barriers; a young black student, Wade Parker, elected president of his senior class at Great Falls High School in the 1950s; a black woman, Mrs. Alma Jacobs, leading the community to construct our fine public library and later heading the Montana State Library; a young black woman, Geraldine Travis, become the first, and still the only, black legislator in the Montana Legislature; the first black baseball player, Johnny Roseboro, in "integrated" baseball in Great Falls achieving fame as one of the greatest catchers in major league history; a black singer, Charlie Pride, getting his start toward fame in country music; black airmen serving at Malmstrom Air Force Base, following in the proud tradition of black “buffalo” soldiers at Forts Shaw and Assiniboine.

What can we do to understand and recognize the lives, problems, and achievements of our black community? We need to encourage historical research and writing focused on black history. We should move the results of this research into what our schools are teaching. We can encourage the Cascade County Historical Society to gather material relating to local black history and to present displays that highlight black history. We have urged the Montana Historical Society (MHS) to take similar actions on a Montana-wide basis, and through funding from the Montana Cultural Trust the MHS has begun a Black History Resources Project which now is reflected on the MHS website . Finally, a gleam in the eye for the future will be to form a Montana African American Museum in Great Falls.

The African American black community, though small in numbers, played an important role in the founding of Great Falls. They faced many challenges, yet many overcame theese challenges. This study is dedicated to the memory of the early black residents of Great Falls.

I have compiled the following biographic sketches of early black settlers living in Great Falls from a wide variety of sources including those listed below. From the arrival of the first black settlers in 1886, Edward and Elizabeth Simms (see below), through the year 1921, the sketches reflect available information and vary in length from one to many sentences.

Additions, corrections, or comments on any of the sketches are welcomed at any time by sending an email to Ken Robison at riverplains@mtintouch.net. These sketches are being incorporated in The Early Settlers of Great Falls (1884-1921) being assembled by the Great Falls Genealogical Society during 2009.

Abbreviations used in this document include the following:

NFI for No Further Information
A. M. E. for African Methodist Episcopal Church
Black for African American
CC for Cascade County
ColC for Colored Citizen a Helena black weekly]
BRW for [Fort] Benton Record Weekly
FBRPD for Fort Benton River Press Daily
FBRPW for Fort Benton River Press Weekly
GFCD for GFCD [with year]
GFLD for Great Falls Leader Daily
GFLW for Great Falls Leader Weekly
GFTD for Great Falls Tribune Daily
GFSC for Great Falls School Census [with year]
MTPD for Montana Plain Dealer [a Helena black weekly]
SRRS for Sun River Rising Sun Weekly
WWI Draft for World War I Draft Registration, Cascade County
CC Reg Births for Cascade County Register of Births
CC Reg Deaths for Cascade County Register of Deaths

The Early Black American Settlers of Great Falls MT:


Ed and Elizabeth Miller Simms, the First Black Residents of Great Falls, Montana:

Ed Simms came to Great Falls early in the summer of 1886, the first black American to live in the little village that grew rapidly after arrival of the railroad in 1887. Over the next two decades, Ed Simms served as a remarkable leader, beloved by his African American community and respected by the entire city.

Edward D. Simms was born to Richard and Lucinda Simms in October 1853 into the slave society of Arkansas. Freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, he worked in Texas and then joined many other young black men in the early 1870s working on steamboats on the Missouri River. In 1880, while serving as purser on the steamer “Red Cloud,” Ed Simms left the river at Fort Benton and settled in Fort Shaw. He worked there for post trader J. H. McKnight. After moving to Great Falls, Ed returned to St. Louis, MO and on August 4, 1886 married Elizabeth Miller. Ed brought his young bride back to frontier Montana.

This was an exciting time for the Great Falls black community, which grew rapidly with the town. The birth of the Simms’ first child, Gertrude, in September 1867, marked the first African American birth in Great Falls. Ed became active in Republican Party politics, which with Lincoln Republican, H. P. Rolfe’s newspaper, The Leader, championed the causes of the black community. Through the party, he was hired as janitor at the Cascade County Court House and built a house at 619 Sixth Avenue South. Ed was elected delegate to Republican city conventions for many years. In those early years, black residents of Great Falls were among the first in Montana to serve on juries, win election to public office, and be appointed police officer.

Both Ed and Elizabeth Simms helped found the African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) Church in Great Falls, by forming a congregation in 1890, and building their first church in 1891. Ed was one of three trustees founding the A. M. E. Church, the “heart” of the black community in the city. On occasions such as the celebration of Emancipation Proclamation Day, January 1, 1892, the black and white communities came together. On that evening at Cory Hall some 200 residents of Great Falls, black and white in equal numbers, joined as one to celebrate the day in 1863 when President Lincoln’s proclamation took effect: “I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves . . . are, and hencefoward shall be free.” Ed Simms, a freed man, took his usual place of honor as chairman and toastmaster for this memorable occasion.

Through most of the 1890s, Ed Simms served as steward at the Rainbow Club, later called the Electric City Club. He gained the affection of the white membership, and continued on the job as his eyesight began to fail. In 1894 Ed Simms and two others organized a black lodge of the I. O. O. F. (Odd Fellows) for Great Falls. Ed and Elizabeth had four children: Gertrude (born 1887), Mollie (born 1889), Edward (born 1893), and Robert McKinley (born 1895). Other household members included Clarina Miller, Elizabeth’s mother; Lucinda Simms, Edward’s mother; and Bertha Mason, a niece. In 1906 with the backing of members of the Electric City Club, Simms, now blind, opened the Electric Shoe Shining Parlors on Third Street South. The shop moved several times until locating in 1916 in the new Dunn-Brown block on Central Avenue. Elizabeth Simms passed away on July 30, 1916, with funeral services at the A. M. E. Church and interment in Highland Cemetery. In August 1918, Ed retired from his business and turned his shoe shining shop over to his daughter, Mrs. Gertrude Clay.

The Leader reported Ed Simms’ retirement, “[Ed Simms] has thousands of friends throughout northern Montana who will be sorry to hear of his retirement and will miss his cheery smile and optimistic views, given from beside the little cash register, no matter what condition of weather or business might be.” Through the years, before his death in 1922, Ed Simms received exceptional coverage in the Great Falls newspapers, among them an article with his photograph in the December 17, 1911 Great Falls Tribune. The story details his life story as well as his love of baseball, which even as a blind man he was able to follow at Black Eagle Park. (Ken Robison)


Early Black Settlers of Great Falls:


Abbott, Mr. and Mrs. Edmund D. Abbott. Edmund D. Abbott was pastor of the Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Great Falls during 1907-09. He and his wife, M. E. Abbott, resided at the church parsonage at 918 Fifth Avenue South. [1908-09 Great Falls Directory]

Adams, Alma. Alma Adams, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1901 and testified in a court case in Oct that year. [GFLD 14 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Adams, Fatima. Fatima Adams was a black woman, age 32, born in Washington D. C. and living in Great Falls in 1911. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 9]

Adams, Ollie. Ollie Adams, a black woman, lived on the lower south side in Great Falls in 1908. [GFTD 9 Sep 1908, p. 5]

Adams, W. H. W. H. Adams, a black man, was a pallbearer at the funeral of William Payne held 6 Sep 1914 with services conducted by the Rev. W. A. Brain in the African Methodist Episcopal church. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3]

Addison, Mrs. Susie. Mrs. William (Susie) Addison, a black woman, lives with her husband at 508 3rd Street South in 1913, and was an active member of the Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal [A. M. E.] Church. [Municipal Census Directory Company’s Census Directory of Great Falls, Montana 1913; GFLD 4 Oct 1919, p. 9]

Addison, William. A black man, William Addison was a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad in 1913. He lived with his wife, Susie, at 508 3rd Street South. [Census Directory of Great Falls, Montana 1913]

Aldrich, G. B. G. B. Aldrich was a black male living in Great Falls in 1898. According to the Great Falls Leader: "A Colored Man From Great Falls is an Applicant for Admission to the Bar. Among the candidates being examined at Helena for admission to the bar is G. B. Aldrich, a colored man from this city. In the verbal examination he made a very favorable impression, as well at the written examination, a colored man will soon be practicing law in this state." [GFLD 9 Jun 1898, p. 4]

Alexander, Charles and Edythenzo Thompson. Charles Alexander was a black man living in Great Falls in 1898. He was born in 1874 in OH, son of John and Liza Barnaby Alexander. On 21 Oct 1898, he married Edythenzo Thompson in Great Falls. She was born in 1878 at Quebec, daughter of James Henry and Charlotte Barnes Thompson. Edythenzo had been previously married and divorced. In 1899, Charles was working as a porter and rooming at 312 Third Avenue South. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 3, p. 346, No. 1572; 1899 Great Falls GFCD]

Allen Jr, James. James Allen Jr., a young black man, was in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917 to register for the World War I Draft. He was born 29 Feb 1896, and his address was given as 3 East 11th New York, NY. James was unmarried and unemployed. James departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12; WWI Draft]

Allen, Thelma. Thelma Allen was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 22 Mar 1917, p. 8]

Allen, William. William Allen was a black man in Great Falls 1913-1915 working as a clerk at William Vineyard’s and rooming at 411 Eleventh Street. He was born in Kalispell, MT 12 Jan 1895. In 1916 he was a porter working at Vineyard & Gally. In 1917 William Allen worked as a bartender at the Maple Leaf club. He was in the Great Falls City Jail 5 Jun 1917 when he registered for the World War I Draft. [1913, 1914, 1915, 1916 Great Falls City Directories; GFLD 17 May 1917, p. 8; WWI Draft]

Allison, Mamie. Mamie Allison, also known as Susie Butler, was a black woman living in Great Falls in the early 1900s. From 1899 to 1902, Mamie lived at 205 Second Street South. In the winter of 1902-03, she “went insane” while living on the West side and was committed to an asylum. In Jul 1903, she was judged cured and ready for release, but her condition worsened. She owned the house on the South side, which was placed in the hands of the public administrator as guardian. [1899, 1900, 1901 Great Falls City Directories; GFLD 29 Jul 1903, p. 5]

Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. Fed. Fed Anderson and his wife were black musicians who moved from Helena to Great Falls in 1910. [MTPD 27 May 1910, p. 4]

Anderson, Hughlie Bink. Hughlie Bink Anderson, a black man lived at 208 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918, when he registered for the World War I Draft. His father was Louis Anderson of 724 Oak Street, Cincinnati, OH. Hughlie had tuberculosis. [WWI Draft]

Anderson, Lewis. Lewis Anderson, a 50 or 58 year old black man, died at the Columbus Hospital 29 Oct 1899. His funeral was held 31 Oct, and he is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 30 Oct 1899, p. 3; GFTD 31 Oct 1899, p. 3; CC Cemetery Records]

Anderson, Lizzie. Lizzie Anderson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 1 Jan 1918, p. 8]

Anderson, Peter W. Peter Anderson was a black barber living in Great Falls in 1900-27. He was born in MO in Aug 1848 and lived at 907 Seventh Avenue South. Peter was a member of the black Masonic Lodge. In 1901 Anderson’s barbershop was located at 214 First Avenue South. The Great Falls Tribune in 1902 carried a long article speculating that Peter Anderson “a Colored Barber in Great Falls” owned property in Plainfield, CO adjacent to where a major gold strike had occurred. In 1908 Peter’s barbershop was at 201 1/2 First Avenue South, and he lived at 225 Sixth Avenue South. Peter was working at J. T. Dowell’s barbershop at 221 First Avenue South, and boarded at 1005 1/2 Seventh Avenue South. By 1919 Anderson’s barbershop was at 314 Fifth Avenue South, and he resided there and continued to work in Great Falls until 1926. In 1920 Peter, a 72 year old widower, worked as a barber and lived at 314 Fifth Street Southwest in Ward 5 on the west side of Great Falls. He remained an active barber until about 1927. [1900, 1920 Census Cascade County; GFLD 18 Apr 1901, p. 5; GFTD 25 Nov 1902, p. 8; 1901, 1903, 1904-05, 1908-09, 1913, 1919, 1923, 1925-26 GFCD]

Anderson, R. B. R. B. Anderson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and participated in a cake-walk contest at the opera house as a fund raiser for the A. M. E. Church. [GFLW 30 Aug 1894, p. 2]

Anderson, William. William or ‘Blondy’ Anderson, a black man, worked as a blacksmith or teamster in Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 14 Sep 1908, p. 5; GFTD 14 Sep 1908, p. 4]

Anthony, William and Mrs. [NFI]. William or Billy Anthony, a young black man, was born in MO Jul 1871. In 1900 he worked as a porter and lodged at a rooming house at 225 Second Avenue South in Great Falls. He later lived at the rear of 207 Fourth Avenue South and worked for various barbershops and at Ward’s cigar store. In 1902, Billy worked as porter at Nick O’Brien’s barber shop. In 1904-05 Anthony lived at 309 Second Avenue South and worked as a porter at 209 Central Avenue. Anthony died 20 Apr 1908 at age 39 in Great Falls. His funeral was held McAllister’s with Rev. E. D. Abbott, officiating. William was buried 23 Apr in Old Highland cemetery. He left a widow [NFI] who witnessed the marriage of William Berry and Maggie Lindsay in Great Falls in 1906. [CC Cemeteries; 1900 Census MT Cascade County; GFLD 12 Sep 1902; 1904-05, 1906-07 GFCD; GFLD 20 Apr 1908, p. 4; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3399]

Anthony, William. William Anthony, a black man, was born in MO Jul 1871. In 1900 he worked as a porter and lodged at a rooming house at 225 Second Avenue South in Great Falls. Anthony worked as a porter for Nicholas O’Brien and roomed at 214 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls during 1901-03. William was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. He later lived at the rear of 207 Fourth Avenue South and worked for various barbershops and at Ward’s cigar store. Anthony died at age 39 in Great Falls and was buried 17 Apr 1908 in Old Highland cemetery. He left a widow. [CC Cemeteries; 1900 Census MT Cascade County; 1903, 1906-07 Great Falls Directory; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; GFLD 20 Apr 1908, p. 4]

Anthony, William Walter. William Walter Anthony, a black man, lived in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917 when he registered for the World War I Draft. He was born in St. Louis, MO, 26 Oct 1888, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. William Anthony departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Austin, Homer James. Homer James Austin, a black man, lived at 323 Second Avenue South in Great Falls when he registered for the World War I Draft 11 Sep 1918. He was born 25 Oct 1883 in IL, and was working as a cook for the Commissary Department of the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. WWI Draft]

Bailey, Belle. Belle Baily was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1896. [GFLD 16 Jul 1896, p. 4]

Bailey, Thomas. Thomas Bailey was a black man, age 37, living in Great Falls in a shack on Sixth Avenue South between Second and Third Streets during 1916 and 1917. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12; GFLD 6 Jan 1917, p. 3]

Bairpaugh, William Albert and Mary C. See also William and Rosa Bairpaugh. William Bairpaugh, a mixed race black man farmed 159 acres in the Houskin School District southeast of Great Falls in 1910. He also maintained a house in Great Falls. William and his wife Mary C. were married about 1900, the second marriage for William and the first for Mary. Mary was born in IL about 1873. Two children, in the household, were a daughter Aliota [?] age 14 born in OK and William B. age 12 born in OK. [1908-09 GFCD; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bairpaugh, Bessie/Betsy. See William and Rosa Anna Bairpaugh

Bairpaugh, Rosa Alberta Talbert. See William and Rosa Anna Bairpaugh

Bairpaugh, William Albert and Rosa Anna Talbert. William (Bill) Albert Bairpaugh, pioneer rancher and businessman, was born 22 Mar 1859 at Talequah in the Indian Territory, the son of Reuben J. and Martha Ann Thomas Bairpaugh. His father was a Cherokee chief and his mother black. At age 12, disliking his stepfather, Bill ran away from home. He came to Montana Territory about 1878 and worked for Paris Gibson. Bill homesteaded and ranched near Tiger Butte for 50 years, owned property in Black Eagle and Great Falls, and prospered. In Jun 1894, William was one of ten men from Great Falls who formed a black Masonic Lodge, Sunset Lodge No. 12. William served as the first treasurer of the Lodge. On 27 Jan 1916, he married Rosa Anna Talbert, a teacher from Chicago, IL who formerly taught at the State reform school of Greendale, KY. Rosa was born in 1882 at Lexington, KY, the daughter of Preston B. and Mary Broadus Talbert. Their son, William Lionel Bairpaugh, died as in infant 23 Feb 1918 age 6 months 24 days and is buried in Highland Cemetery. On 6 Dec 1918, William and Rosa lived at 1219 Eighth Avenue South, when Rosa gave birth to a baby girl. In the 1920 census, William and his family rented a home at 308 Ninth Street South, and he worked as a janitor in a bank. His family consisted of his wife Rose; a daughter Rosa age 1 year and six months; and an 18 year old daughter (apparently from Rose’s first marriage) Bessie doing day work in a private home. In 1939 the two daughters, Rose Alberta Bairpaugh lived in Great Falls, and Mrs. Bessie (or Betsy) Mary Carnes lived in Denver in 1928 and later in Los Angeles. Rose graduated from Great Falls High School in 1937. At one time, Bill was "recognized as the richest Negro in the northwest," and he gave much of his wealth away to poor blacks in Great Falls. William Bairpaugh died at his home, 1221 Sixth Avenue South, 5 Jun 1928. [GF Yesterday pp. 39-40; Tiger Butte Recollections, p. 107; GFLW 7 Jun 1894, p. 6; CC Cemetery Records; Great Falls High School Round-up 1937; CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7262; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Baker, Miss Mary. A young black woman living in Great Falls in 1902, Miss Mary Baker was born in 1888. [GFTD 7 Sep 1902, p. 12]

Baker, Rev. Warren L. N. and Mrs. M. E. Warren L. N. Baker, and his wife M. E. Baker, lived in Great Falls from 1901-1906. Reverend Baker served as pastor at the African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) church in Great Falls and resided in the parsonage in the rear of the church at 916 Fifth Avenue South. He served also as non-resident minister for the A. M. E. congregation in Havre and helped built the church building there in 1902. He was instrumental in paying off the debt at the Great Falls church and in building the church in Havre. In Oct 1903 Rev. Baker accepted the pastorate of the A. M. E. Church in Billings. [1901, 1903, 1904-05, 1906-07 Great Falls City Directories]

Baker, William and Grace Smith. William (Will) Baker, a 30 year old black man, born in NY, son of W. E. Baker and Sarah L. Bishop married Grace Smith 13 Oct 1910 in Great Falls. Grace Smith was born in 1891 in MT was the daughter of Peter and Louisa Smith. William Baker and his wife lived in Great Falls and Helena during 1910-11. A piano player, Will Baker played at night clubs. [MTPD 27 Jan 1911, p. 1; CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 6; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4603]
Baldridge, Hugh. Hugh Baldridge, a 35 year old black man, born in Missouri, lived in Great Falls in 1911. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 3 ]

Ball, Letha. See Leo and Letha Ball Cooper.

Banks, Earl Hubert and Margaret E. Blackenburg. Earl H. Banks, a black man, lived all of life in Great Falls. He was born in Great Falls on 14 Jul 1894 and attended local schools. He was the son of William and Susie T. Banks, his birth date is off by 12 years between the 1900 Census and his obituary. On 6 Oct 1917, Earl enlisted in the Army for service in World War I. He served as a corporal in the supply company of the 349th field artillery of the famed 92nd Buffalo Division. He was discharged from the Army 39 Apr 1919. In 1920 he lived at 501 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls, the home of his sister Helen H. Collins and her family. Earl was not employed in 1920. Margaret E. Blackenburg was born 18 Aug 1903 in Long Prairie MN. She came to Great Falls in 1921, probably with parents Charles J. and Louise Blackenburg. She was a member of the Catholic Church. Margaret married Earl Hubert Banks before 1925. In 1937 Earl and Margaret lived three miles south of Great Falls. He died in a local hospital 29 May 1937 at age 42. Funeral services were held at O’Connor’s chapel 1 Jun with Rev. C. W. Smith of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Surviving Earl were Margaret; two daughters, Garneil born 17 Oct 2925, and Lillian; and three sons Herbert, Hubert, and Earl; his mother, Mrs. Susie Marshall of Seattle, and a sister Helen Collins of Seattle. His son Corporal Earl Banks was killed in action in the Korean War 27 Jul 1950 at age 17. Corporal Banks was reburied at Highland Cemetery 10 Oct 1953 in Line H South Veteran’s plot. Margaret passed on 12 Jun 1997 at age 93. Funeral services were held 16 Jun with, and she was interred at Hillcrest Lawn Mausoleum. Surviving her were daughters Lillian Smith and Garneil Belden; and sons, Herbert, Hubert and Robert Banks, all of Great Falls. [1920 Census MT Cascade; 1934, 1935, 1940 GFCD; GFTD 30 May 1937, p. 4; GFTD 1 Jun 1937, p. 10; GFTD 14 Jun 1997, p. 2M]

Banks, Floyd. Floyd Banks, a ten month old mixed race black child, died 16 Feb 1895 and was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Banks, Fred. Fred Banks, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1900. [GFLD 5 Apr 1900, p. 3]

Banks, Helen H. See William and Susie T. Banks and George and Helen H. Banks Collins.

Banks, Lady M. Lady M. Banks lived at 605 Ninth Avenue South in Great Falls and died here 12 Oct 1918 at the age of 45. Her funeral was held at O’Connors chapel with Rev. Fr. O’Rourke officiating. He was buried at Cavalry Cemetery. [GFTD 13 Oct 1918, p. 2; GFTD 15 Oct 1918, p. 2; CC Cemetery Records]

Banks, William and Susie T. William and Susie T. Banks and family lived in Great Falls from the late 1890s to about 1907. This black American family included the following members: father William Banks born Dec 1850 in TX and working as a barber in 1900; wife Susie T. Banks born Apr 1857 in MO and working as a servant in 1900; son William (Jr.) born in Dec 1872 in TX [see separate entry]; son Earl born Jun 1882 in MT and a hotel porter in 1900; daughter Helen born Jul 1884 in MT and in school in 1900; son David born MT Jun 1886 and in school in 1900; son George W. born May 1888 in Montana and in school in 1900; son Thomas J. born Jan 1890 in Montana and in school in 1900; son Abraham L. born Feb 1891 in Montana and in school in 1900; son Robert L. born Mar 1893 in Montana; daughter Ruby born Jun 1894 in MT; son Sherman born Jan 1896 in MT; and daughter Mary Jane born Feb 1897 in MT. The Great Falls City Directories from 1899 to 1907 list one William Banks, porter, and Mrs. William Banks, laundress, at various addresses on the South side, but it is unclear whether this family is that of Banks, Sr. or Jr. [1900 Cascade Co. Census; 1899, 1900, 1901, 1903, 1904-05, 1906-07 Great Falls City Directories]

Banks, William (Jr.) and Susie. William and Susie Banks Jr. and family lived in Great Falls by 1898. This black family probably followed William’s father and family to Montana. In 1899 William Banks worked as a porter at M. O. Lohe. Susie was a laundress and the family lived at 312 Third Street South. The family included the following members: William Banks born Dec 1872 in TX working as a laborer in 1900; wife Susie W. Banks born Dec 1876 in Dakota Territory; son Carl born 1894; and daughter Helen born Dec 1896 in Montana. [Aug 1898 GF School District #1 Census; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Banks, William. William Banks, a black man, came to Great Falls about 1897 and died here 17 Oct 1907 at age 43. His funeral services were held at the A. M. E. Church 20 Oct, and he was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 19 Oct 1907, p. 4; CC Cemetery Records]

Barber, Mrs. Gertrude. Gertrude Barber, a 38 year old black woman, lived at 502 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920 and worked as a janitor at a railway station. She was born about 1882 in IA. Gertrude Barber sang solos at concerts of the A. M. E. church 12-13 Nov 1917 for the benefit of the church fund. In 1918 she was a domestic working and residing at 727 Fourth Avenue North. By June 1919, she was president of the A. M. E. church Fortnightly Excelsior club. Mrs. Barber roomed at 708 Eighth Avenue South and worked as a janitor. [GFLD 9 Nov 1917, p. 5; GFTD 28 Jul 1918, Sec. 2, p. 4; 1918, 1919 GFCD; 1910 Census MT Montana]

Barker, Leroy. Leroy Barber, a 46 year old mixed race black worked on a ranch near Great Falls and lived in Black Eagle in 1920. He was born about 1874 in KS and was a widower. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Barnes, Alfred. Alfred Barnes, a black man, was a laborer working for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was born 1 Dec 1892 at Kansas City, and listed his address as 407 Westport Avenue, Kansas City, MO, probably where his wife lived. [WWI Draft]

Barshaw, John. John Barshaw, a 61 year old black man, lived at 1219 Sixth Avenue South and worked as a laborer in 1920. He was born about 1859 in TX. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bass, Letha. Letha Bass, a young black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1892. [GFLD 5 Aug 1892, p. 5]

Baxter, Aaron M. and Lyda Highwordon. Aaron M. Baxter was born in 1852 in MI, son of Frank and Melvina Day Baxter. On 1 Jul 1890 in Great Falls, Aaron married Miss Lyda Highwordon of Great Falls born in 1867 at MN, daughter of James and Mary Higgins Highwordon. [Cascade Co. Marriage Licenses 1890]

Baxter, C. I. C. I. Baxter witnessed the marriage of Geroge Demar and Miss Gertie Greer in Great Falls on 1 Jan 1910. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4265]

Baxter, Edward/Shack and Sadie. Mr. and Mrs. Edward/Shack Baxter were a black couple living at 326 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1910. Shack was born in 1885 in Tennessee and worked at a saloon in Great Falls. Sadie was born about 1888, she and Edward were married in 1908. Edward Baxter worked at Jenny Amberny’s All Nations Saloon in 1908 and roomed at 217 Second Street South. [1910 Census MT Cascade County; 1908-09, 1910 Great Falls GFCD]

Bearpaugh, Josephine. Josephine Bearpaugh was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1900. She was born in Sep 1872 in KS of parents born in KY. She worked as a cook in the household of Andrew Rinker, 703 Fourth Avenue North. Rinker was the Secretary and Treasurer of the Great Falls Water Power and Townsite Company. [1900 Cascade Co. Census; 1900 Great Falls GFCD]

Bell, Benjamin. Benjamin Bell, a black man, was a laborer working for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was born 16 May 1889 at Greensborough, GA, was unmarried, and gave his address as general delivery Great Falls. Bennie Bell, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Bell, Harry and Mrs. Harry Bell, a black man, worked as a chimney sweep and lived in Great Falls in 1900-02. He was married, although the name of his wife is unknown. [GFLD 29 Nov 1901, p. 5; GFTD 3 May 1902, p. 8]

Bell, Mary. See Beatrice and Mary Bell Smith Parker.

Bernard, James. James Bernard, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1904 and served as a witness at the marriage of Theodore Carman and Miss Stella Ford. [GFLD 17 Mar 1904, p. 8]

Berry, Roger. Roger Berry, a black man lived in Great Falls in the late 1920s. He worked as a waiter for the Great Northern Railroad. In 1927-28 Roger Berry had a room in the Power City Rooms at 116 1/2 First Avenue South. With Leo LaMar, Roger Berry had a beer hall on 10th Avenue South and Second or Third Streets. In 1930 Berry and his wife Mary lived at 1303 Sixth Avenue South. By 1931 the Berrys were living at 621 Second Avenue Southwest. [GFCD 1928-29, 1930, 1931]

Berry, William H. and Maggie Lindsay. William H. Berry was a black man born in MA in 1871, son of Henry and Henrietta Williams Berry. On 26 Sep 1906 in Great Falls, he married Miss Maggie Lindsay of Great Falls, born in Sep 1887 in MN, daughter of James Lindsay and Nellie McKenzie. On the evening of Saturday 18 May 1907, William Berry took an overdose of morphine and died in Great Falls early Sunday morning. His funeral services were conduced by Rev. J. H. C. Redd, pastor of the A. M. E. Church, 22 May 1907, and he was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. For Maggie Lindsay Berry also see Edward and Maggie Lindsay Berry Lightener. [CC Cemeteries, 1; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3399; GFLD 20 May 1907, p. 1]

Bess, Isaac Wilber and Jessie H. Isaac Wilber Bess was born in Indiana 11 Apr 1880 of parents born in SC. He married Jessie H. [NFI], who was born in 1881 in GA of a father born in MD and a mother born in GA. The Bess family moved to Great Falls before 1918 and lived at 411 Sixth Street South. On 12 Sep 1918, Isaac registered for the World War I Draft. At that time he was living at 708 Eighth Avenue South with his wife Jessie H. He gave his occupation as minister at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. Wilber was a janitor in a bank and an assistant minister at the A. M. E. Church. Jessie was president of the Afro-American Women’s Patriotic club in Great Falls during World War I. [GFTD 3 Nov 1918, pt. 1, p. 6; WWI Draft; 1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bess, Oliver. Oliver Bess, a black man, lived in Great Falls for several years in the early 1900’s. In 1903, he moved to Billings. [GFLD 19 Apr 1904, p. 5]

Bigbee, Charles Edward and Virgil Mary Brooks. Charles Edward (C. E.) Bigbee was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Porter Bigbee. He was born 11 Nov 1871 in Springfield, KY, and came to Great Falls at age 15. In 1893 he worked in Great Falls as a porter at the West Corner Saloon at 213 Seventh Avenue South. In 1901, Bigbee worked as a porter and resided at 713 Seventh Avenue South. In May 1904, C. E. Bigbee was a member of the Masonic order and attended the Colored Masons Hard Time Ball in Great Falls. On 31 Dec 1907, Charles Bigbee married Virgil Mary Brooks of Helena at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls with the wedding conducted by Rev. E. D. Abbott and witnesses George N. Hagin and F. Monroe. She was born in 1877 in TX, daughter of Pebedee Mitchell and Elizabeth Allen. Virgil Mary had been previously married to ____ Brooks. In the 1910 census, her son Jesse Lee Brooks was in the household of Edward and Virgie Bigbee at 614 Seventh Avenue South. From 1900 to about 1910, Charles worked as a farm laborer on his brother John’s farm near Comer. He then ranched for a number of years on Box Elder Creek and later sold his interests and became a porter on the Great Northern Railroad, retiring in 1946. Before 1915 Charles and Virgil Mary were divorced. On 14 Apr 1915, Charles E. Bigbee married Miss Corra Lee Allen of Nashville, TN, with Rev. W. H. Prince of the A. M. E. church officiating. Corra Lee was born in 1887 in TN, the daughter of Lytle and Martha Allen. C. E. Bigbee, of 713 Seventh Avenue South, died 13 Apr 1957 at a local hospital at age 85. Funerals services were held at Croxford’s Mortuary and conducted by the Rev. Ellis Casson, followed by burial at Highland Cemetery. [See also entries for Porter and Elizabeth Bigbee] [GFLD 8 May 1901, p. 4; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; GFLD 15 Apr 1957, p. 3; GFLD 17 Apr 1957, p. 2; 1880 Census Tennessee; 1900, 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1893, 1899, 1919, 1923 GFCD; CC Cemetery; CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 3733; CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 7689]

Bigbee, Mrs. Elizabeth Clara Thompson. Mrs. Elizabeth Clara Thompson Bigbee was a mixed race black woman born in Jul 1840 in AL or about 1838 in TN and christened in TN. Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas P. and Roda Grays Childress. She came to Great Falls about 1896 with her husband, Porter Bigbee, to be with her children, who had come to MT: Tennessee Finn Hagan about 1856; Susan Payne 1866; John H. born 1860 [see separate entry]; Charlotte Glovina born 1863; Charles Edward born 1871 [see separate entry]; Margaret (Maggie) born Jun 1883; and Emma born Jan 1886. In addition Mr. and Mrs. Porter Bigbee had several other children: James W. born 1856; Benjamin born 1857. According to the Montana Plain Dealer in Dec 1909, “Mrs. Bigbee of Great Falls visited her sister Mrs. Ed. Johnson [in Helena] last week." Mrs. Elizabeth Bigbee lived with her family at 713 Seventh Avenue South. She died 28 Jan 1917 following a long illness at her home, aged about 79 years. Three daughters survived her: Tennie Hagan, Susie Payne and Glovina Smith of Great Falls; and one son, Charles E. Bigbee of Anaconda. Three grandsons, Omar Connell of Anaconda, and John and Henry Connell of Great Falls, also survived. Her funeral was held in O'Connor's undertaking chapel with services conducted by Rev. G. Edward Horsey, pastor of the African Methodist Episcopal church. Mrs. Bigbee was buried in Old Highland cemetery. [1870, 1880 Census Tennessee; 1900 Cascade Co. Census; 1913, 1914 GFCD; CC Cemeteries, I; MTPD 1 Dec 1909, p. 4; GFLD 29 Jan 1917, p. 3; GFLD 30 Jan 1917, p. 6]

Bigbee, Glovinna. See Glovinna Bigbee Connell Smith.

Bigbee, John H. John H. Bigbee, a mixed race black man born in TN in 1860 by the 1880 census [KY by Cemetery Records, or MO in Dec 1867 by his obituary], the son of Thomas P. and Elizabeth Childress Bigbee. John settled in Great Falls about 1890. In 1893 John lived at 213 Seventh Avenue South, and by 1896 he was living at 713 Seventh Avenue South. By the late 1890s John was farming and ranching but still living in Great Falls. In 1910 John was farming outside Great Falls at Comer, and his brother Charles worked for him. John was unmarried born about 1863 in KY in the 1910 census. On 7 Jan 1915, he died at the family home, 713 Seventh Avenue South after a long illness. Mr. Bigbee was survived by his mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Bigbee of Great Falls; three sisters, Mrs. Susan Payne, Mrs. Charlotte Glovina Smith and Mrs. M. T. Hagin, all of Great Falls, also one brother, Charles E. Bigbee of Anaconda, MT. His funeral was held in the family home and at the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church with services conducted by Rev. Prince, pastor. Mr. Bigbee is buried at Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 8 Jan 1915; GFTD 9 Jan 1915; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 GFCD]

Bigbee, Porter G. Porter G. Bigbee, a mixed race black man who was born in TN about 1824 and came to Great Falls with his wife Clara Elizabeth about June 1896 from TN to join his children here. He died a year later, 31 May 1897 at age 74 years at the home of his daughter, Mrs. W. W. Inglemon, at 713 Seventh Avenue South. The funeral was held at his daughter’s home 1 Jun 1897, and he was buried at Highland Cemetery. He left five children, all adults, four of whom resided in Great Falls. [GFTD 1 Jun 1897, p. 3, CC Cemetery, I; 1870, 1880 Census Tennessee]

(Bigbee), Susan. See Mrs. Susan Payne.

Bigby, Mary. Mary Bigby, a black woman, worked as a domestic on the north side of Great Falls in 1910. She was born about 1877 in GA. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bird, Eddie. Eddie Bird, a black man, lived at 502 Third Street South in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was born 12 Mar 1898, son of Mathew Bird of Shreveport, LA. Eddie was working as a baggage man for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Birdsong, Emma. Emma Birdsong, a black female, lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Bisby, Lame. Laml Bisby, a 30 year old black died in Great Falls 29 Jul 1896 and was buried at Old Highland cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I]

Blackburn, May/Mary. May or Mary Blackburn, a black woman living on Second Street South, lived in Great Falls in 1896. In Jul 1896, she was charged with assault with a knife and sentenced to six months in prison. [GF Directory 1896, p. 36; GFLD 18 May 1896, p. 4; GFLD 15 Jul 1896, p. 4; GFLD 16 Jul 1896, p. 4; GFLD 23 Jul 1896, p. 4; GFLD 28 Jul 1896, p. 4]
Blackenburg, Margaret E. See Earl Hubert and Margaret E. Blackenburg Banks.

Blair, Robert. Robert Blair, a black man, lived at 717 Third Street South in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was born 6 Sep 1882, son of Susan Blair of Texas. Eddie was working as a porter for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Blue, Robert. Robert Blue, a 31 year old black man lived in Great Falls in 1911. [CC Register of Prisioners, V.2]

Bly, Julius Caesar. Cesar Bly, a black man, was employed at the Park hotel in early Great Falls. In Jan 1887 Caesar Bly was arrested for assault with a deadly weapon. He acquitted by a jury in Fort Benton. [Choteau Co. Jail Register; FBRPW 1 Jun 1887; FBRPW 3 Aug 1887; GFTD 2 Jul 1887, p. 4]

Bogard, Joseph. Joseph Bogard a black man, was a pallbearer at the funeral of William Payne held 6 Sep 1914 with services conducted by the Rev. W. A. Brain in the African Methodist Episcopal church. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3]

Bogeman, Willard Monroe. Willard Monroe Bogeman, a black man, lived at 216 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was born 11 Apr 1875, son of Lottil Bogeman in IL. Willard was working for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Bohanan, Moses. Moses Bohanan, a black man, lived at 316 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls with Sadia Helm on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 16 Feb 1884. Moses was working as a fireman for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. Moses remained in Great Falls through 1920. [WWI Draft; GFLD 22 Nov 1920, p. 8]

Bolrich, Hugh. Hugh Bolrich, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1911. [GFTD 5 Dec 1911, p. 7]

Boradnax, R. H. R. H. Boradnax lived in Great Falls in 1904, and in Feb of that year with J. T. Dowell sponsored a cake walk for the black community at Luther’s Hall. [GFLD 19 Feb 1904, p. 2]

Boston, Fred Samuel. Willard Monroe Bogeman, a black man, lived at 605 Ninth Avenue South in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was born 25 Jul 1892 at Charleston, SC. Fred was unmarried and working as a dining car waiter for the Great Northern Railroad between Great Falls and Butte. Fred S. Boston, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Bouie, William. William Bouie, a black man, was a prisoner in the county jail in Great Falls in. William was born about 1899 in AR. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bourne, Bessie. Bessie Bourne, a 29 year old single black woman, boarded at the home of Henry White 1214 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. She was born about 1891 in TX. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bowsticks, Thomas. Thomas Bosticks, a 24 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1899-1900. He was born in Jun 18766 in MD and worked as a porter in the Great Falls Hotel at 217 First Avenue South. [GFLD 24 Nov 1899, p. 3; GFLD 27 Nov 1899, p. 3; 1899 GFCD; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.].

Boyce, Katie. See John Thomas and Katie Boyce Moore.

Boyd, James and Mildred. James Boyd, a 32 year old black man, and his wife Mildred, lived at 605 Seventh Avenue South in 1916. Mildred Boyd, a 29 year old black woman, lived with her husband, James, at 605 Seventh Avenue South. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Boyd, Jessie. Jessie Boyd was a black woman living in the restricted district in Great Falls in 1909. [GFTD 28 Dec 1909, p. 7]

Bradley, James E and Jessie. James E. Bradley, a 62 year old black man, lived in the south side of Great Falls in 1901-10. James worked as a barber at J. T. Dowell’s barbershop and roomed at 120 1/2 Central Avenue. He was born in TN about 1848. In 1910 Bradley lived at 316 Fourth Street South with his wife Jessie and four children, all born in MT: daughter Jessie born 1896, daughter Florence born 1900, son Ernest born 1901, and Eleanor born 1906. The Bradleys were married in 1894. Jessie was born in 1854 in MO. [GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8; GFLD 9 Jul 1909, p. 8; 1901 GFCD; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Brain, W. A. H. Rev. W. A. Brain conducted services in the African Methodist Episcopal church in Great Falls in 1914. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6, p. 3]

Brewer, Adam. Adam Brewer, a 21 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 10 Sep 1917]

Bright, Dedee. Dedee Bright, a 30 year old black man, was a porter and lived at the home of Ray Walker 313 1/2 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Dedee Bright registered for the World War I Draft 5 Jun 1917. He was born 17 Dec 1892 at Clarksville, MO, and unmarried. In 1917 Dedee worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. [WWI Draft; 1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Briley, Dan and Augie Hartwick. Dan Briley, a black man, and his wife Augie Hartwick, lived in Great Falls at 26 Feb 1917, when Augie gave birth to a baby boy, their fifth child. [CC Reg Births]

Brisco, Charles. Charles Brisco, a 31 year old black man, he roomed at 501 Fifth Street South in Great Falls and worked as a farmer in 1920. He was born about 1889 in KS. [1920 Census MT Cascade]

Brooks, Arthur L. G. Arthur L. G. Brooks was a black man living in Great Falls during the period 1903-1908. He was a “champion bootblack.” [GFLD 29 Jun 1903, p. 2; GLFD 18 Aug 1908, p. 8; GFLD 20 Aug 1908, p. 5]

Brooks, Jesse Lee. Jesse Lee Brooks, a young black student, lived at 614 Seventh Avenue South with his mother Virgie and his step-father Edward Bigbee. Jesse was born in TX in 1894. He attended Great Falls public schools until 1909-10 when as a Junior at Great Falls High School he published an article in the High School Roundup. He also spoke eloquently at a celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 held at the Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1910. In the fall of 1910, Jesse entered Western University at Quintard, Kansas. [MTPD 26 Aug 1910, p. 4; MTPD 24 Feb 1911, p. 4; MTPD 24 Mar 1911, p. 4; MTPD 5 Aug 1911, p. 4]

Brooks, John. John Brooks, a young black man, lived at in Great Falls in 1917. He was born 6 Sep 1893 Crawford MO. When he registered for the draft 5 Jun 1917, he indicated that he was single but that he had a wife and one child. In Oct 1917, Brooks was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917; WWI Draft]

Brown, Alice. Alice Brown, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 11 Apr 1908, p. 4]

Brown, Alonzo. Alonzo Brown, a black man, lived at Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls on 5 Jun1917. He was born 23 May 1896 at Muskah, OK. Moses was unmarried and working as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Brown, Bessie. Bessie Brown, a 33 year old single black woman, worked as a porter in a barber shop and boarded at the home of Charles Joyner at 914 1/2 Fifth Avenue South in 1920. She was born about 1887 in TX. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Brown, Ely H. Ely H. Brown, a 33 year old black man, worked as a porter in a barber shop and boarded on the south side in Great Falls in 1920. Ely registered for the draft 12 Sep 1918. He was born 18 Jan 1886, son of Ethel Brown of Navasota, TX. Ely lived at 518 1/2 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a freight handler for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Brown, Reverend E. S. Reverend E. S. Brown was pastor of the early A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Oct 1892-Aug 1893. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Brown, George. George Brown, a black man, worked as a porter and lived in Great Falls in 1907. [GFTD 11 Feb 1907, p. 4]

Brown, H. P. H. P. Brown, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFLD 2 Sep 1916, p. 6]

Brown, J. W. In Jun 1908, J. W. Brown, a black man, played first base on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4]

Brown, James. James Brown, a black man, lived at 211 Fifth Street South in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 5 May 1876, son of John Brown of Wichita, KS. James was working as a laborer for Charles Kine in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Brown, Joe B. and Ellen Coen. Joe B. Brown, a young black man, was born in AR in 1883, the son of Joseph and Rosa Mitchell Brown. Joe was married and divorced [NFI]. On 27 Nov 1908, Joe B. Brown of Great Falls married Ellen Coen of Great Falls with Rev. E. D. Abbott of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Ellen was born in VA in 1880, daughter of Hap and Mary Coen Lose. Ellen, also, had been previously married and was a widow [NFI]. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 3942]

Brown, Madie. Madie Brown came to Great Falls in the 1890s from London, Ontario, and later moved on to Yakima, WA. [GFLD 13 Feb 1899, p. 4]

Brown, Mona. Mona or Monon Brown was a black woman living on Third Alley South in Great Falls in the early 1900s. She lived on the lower South side in Great Falls. [GFLD 14 Aug 1902, p. 8; GFLD 8 Sep 1902, p. 5; GFTD 16 Sep 1902, p. 8]

Brown, Thomas. Thomas “Tom” lived in Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1903, he was a barber at the rear of 400 Third Avenue South, living at 415 Eighth Avenue South. About 1904, Tom Brown moved to Havre. [1903, 1904-05 Great Falls City Directories; GFLD 8 Sep 1902, p. 8]

Brown, William. William Brown was a 39 year old black man living in Great Falls in 1907. He was known as the “champion window washer, and was popular in the black community.” In late Nov 1907, William was taken to the Columbus hospital suffering from typhoid-pneumonia. He died 1 Dec 1907 and was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I; GFLD 2 Dec 1907, p. 3; GFLD 4 Dec 1907, p. 3]

Brown, William Robert and Pearl Lindsay. William Robert Brown was a black man, born in 25 Dec 1883 in Memphis, TN, son of William Brown and Mary Wilson. On 20 Nov 1910, Robert Brown married Miss Pearl Lindsay in Great Falls with Rev. W. J. Tolliver of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Witnesses included Pearl’s younger sister Edna Lindsay and Gladstone Carman. Pearl was born in Great Falls in Apr 1893, the daughter of James Lindsay [born TN] and Nellie McKenzie [born MT]. In 1917 William and Pearl lived at 1005 Seventh Avenue South, when Pearl gave birth to a baby boy. On 12 Sep 1918, William registered for the World War I Draft. He reported living with his wife Pearl at 710 Eleventh Street South in Great Falls, and working as a laborer for J. W. Roberts at 1111 Sixth Avenue South. On 27 Mar 1920, Pearl gave birth to a baby boy. In 1920 the Browns lived at 1026 Seventh Avenue South and William worked as a porter in a barbershop. The family included the parents and four children: Ethel age 8; Tevis (Nellie) age 6; (William) Robert age 5; Richard James age 2; and Archie (Leonard) age 9 months. In 1930 the Browns lived at 815 Ninth Avenue South with ten children: Ethel age 18 worked as a maid in a theatre; Nellie age 17 in school; William age 15 in school; Richard age 14 in school; Leonard age 10 in school; Harold age 7 in school; Dorothy age 5 in school; Donald age 3 and 11 months; Edna age 2 and 4 months; and Wilford age 7 months. Another son Jackie was born 27 Dec 1933, died in infancy 24 May 1934, and is buried in Highland Cemetery. Richard James died 29 May 1977 in Great Falls and is buried in Highland Cemetery in Line A West Veteran’s plot. William R. Brown died 17 Apr 1959 age 75 and is buried in Highland Cemetery. His wife, Pearl died 17 Sep 1975 and is buried at Highland Cemetery. [WWI Draft; GFLD 23 Nov 1917, p. 8; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4645; 1920, 1930 U.S. Census; CC Cemetery Records; CC Reg Births]

Bryant, Charles W and Carrie Coleman. Charles W. Bryant, a black man, lived in Great Falls 1889-1891. He was born in 1852 at Cincinnati OH, son of Samuel and Melinda Woods Bryant. On 26 Jun 1889, Charles married Miss Carrie Coleman of Great Falls. Carrie was born 1854 at Seaport DE, daughter of Alfred and Loisa Ova Coleman. [GFTD 25 Jun 1891; Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1889 No. 75]

Bukey, John. John Bukey, a black man, lived in Great Falls when he registered for the World War I Draft on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 27 Dec 1888 at Deatville, KY. Moses was married and working as a cook in the Dining Car Service of the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. Johnny Bukey departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Bullett, George. George Bullett, a 62 year old black man, was a cook and lived at the home of a Polish immigrant Mary Senko 166 First Avenue South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. George was born in KY about 1858 and was unmarried. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Bullow, Camille. Camille Bullow was a black woman who worked in the South side red light district in Great Falls in 1903. [GFLD 12 Jun 1903, p. 5; GFLD 13 Jun 1903, p. 8]

Burdock, James. James Burdock, a black man, worked as a porter on a Pullman car on the Northern Pacific Railroad. He was involved with Marymacher in 1892 in Great Falls and Helena. [GFLD 13 Feb 1892, p. 5]

Burdoe, James. James Burdoe, a black man, served as porter by the Northern Pacific, was in Great Falls and Helena in 1892. [GFLD 22 Mar 1892, p. 5]

Burgess, W. M. W. M. Burgess, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 11 Sep 1917, p. 3]

Burney, William. William Burney, a black man, lived at 912 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls with his wife and two children on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 1 Dec 1887 at Billings, MT. William was working as a hod carrier for Charles Kline in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Bush, Paul. Paul Bush, a black man, lived at the Great Northern Boarding Camp at Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 23 Nov 1894 at Fayette, MO. Paul was unmarried and working as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Butler, Elijah. Elijah Butler, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1891. [GFTD 10 Apr 1891]

Butler, Henry. Henry Butler, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 5 Jul 1898, p. 3]

Butler, John. John Butler, a black man born about 1868, lived in Great Falls at least from 1908-1913. He was buried at Old Highland Cemetery 24 Aug 1913. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908; CC Cemeteries, I]
Butler, Lige. Lige Butler, a black man, lived in Great Falls during 1891. [GFTD 29 Jul 1891; GFTD 4 Sep 1891]

Butler, Susie. Susie or Susy Butler, also known as Mamie Allison, was a mixed race black woman who lived in Great Falls from about 1895 to 1903. From 1899 to 1902, Mamie lived at 205 Second Street South in a house that she had had built. By Nov 1902, Susie was living on the Westside of Great Falls. In the winter of 1902-03, she “went insane” and was committed to the asylum at Warm Springs. In Jul 1903, she was judged cured and ready for release, but her condition worsened. Her house on the South side was placed in the hands of the public administrator as guardian. [1899, 1900, 1901 Great Falls City Directories; GFLD 5 Jan 1903, p. 4-5; GFLD 29 Jul 1903, p. 5]

Byas, Reverend G. H. Reverend G. H. Byas served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Sep 1893 to Aug 1895. He was a contributing member of the African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) Church. [1894 A. M. E Church Regional Conference Minutes; A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Byers, Mattie Bell. See also John and Mattie Bell Byers Novotny. Mattie Bell Byers, a black woman, was born in North Carolina. In 1897 Mrs. John K. (Mattie) Castner, the “mother” of Belt went to North Carolina to visit her old home. On her return to Belt she brought with her grand-niece and namesake, Mattie Bell Byers. Mattie Bell made her home with Mrs. Castner and attended public schools until graduation from the eighth grade. On 5 Sep 1900 Mattie Bell was married to John L. Novotny of St. Cloud, Minnesota. They were the parents of 22 children, seven of whom were living in 1939. They are Arthur, Harvey, Wallace, and Grace who live in California; Mrs. Mary Berry who has two children and lives in Great Falls; Jacqueline who is attending college at Winston-Salem in preparation for teaching; and Phoebe, Mrs. Dave Nelson of Washington, D. C. Phoebe won the Cascade county shorthand contest in 1925 and took second in the state contest. For a time Phoebe was secretary to the superintendent of schools in Washington, D. C. One of Mrs. Novotny’s sons, John Laurence, graduated from Great Falls High School and at age 24 joined the aviation service at San Diego, CA. He was killed in an airplane accident. Mr. Novotny was engaged in a thriving ice business in Belt and Armington until the family's removal to Great Falls in 1911. Upon the death of her husband, Mattie Bell married Joseph Welsh. [Great Falls Yesterday, p. 196]

Caldwell, Charles. Charles Caldwell, a 37 year old unmarried black man, worked as a hire man on a farm and lived on Great Falls Road near Comer in 1910. He was born about 1873 in TX. In 1913 Charles worked as a stevedore for the Great Northern Railway and lived at 1112 Thirteenth Street South in Great Falls. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 GFCD]

Caldwell, Charles. Charles Caldwell, a black man, lived in Great Falls while working for the railroad on 5 Jun 1917. His home address was listed as 1918, Kansas City, MO. He was born 14 Aug 1890 at Joplin, MO. Charles was unmarried and working as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Caldwell, Phil. Phil Caldwell was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917, and he was manager of the black social club, the Maple Leaf club. [GFLD 31 Jan 1917, p. 8; GFLD 1 Feb 1917, p. 8]

Cale, Harmon O. and Blanche Howard. Harmon O. Cale of Great Falls was born PA in 1856, the son of Henry and Mary J. Parks Cale. He was married and divorced. On 27 Nov 1913, Harmon married Blanche Howard of Plainsville NJ with Rev. David W. Sims of the A. M. E. Church officiating. She was born in 1866 in VA, the daughter of Monroe Mann and Louisa Williams. She too was previously married and divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 9, No 6040]

Call, Belle. Belle Call was a young black woman living in Great Falls during 1901-02. [GFTD 11 May 1902, p. 8]

Callender, James Abraham and Ruth E. James Abraham Callender was a black man living in Great Falls in 1918-19, working as a porter and residing at 708 Eighth Avenue South. His wife, Ruth E. Callender was Secretary of the Afro-American Women’s Patriotic Club in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 3 Nov 1918, pt. 1, p. 6; 1918, 1919 GFCD]

Callender, Joseph Abraham. Joseph Abraham Callender, a black man, lived at 708 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls on 9 Sep 1918. He was born 25 Sep 1885 at Billings, MT. William worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railroad in Great Falls. His closest relative was listed as Inez L. Callender, a daughter, at Barbados, West Indies. In 1918 his wife, Ruth E. Callender, was Secretary of the Afro-American Women’s Patriotic Club in Great Falls. [WWI Draft; GFTD 3 Nov 1918, pt. 1, p. 6; 1918, 1919 GFCD]

Cameron, Charles. Charles Cameron was a black man living in Great Falls during 1896. [GFLD 5 Jun 1896, p. 4]

Campbell, James Milton. James Milton Campbell, a black man, lived at Sand Coulee while working as a tailor on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 21 Jun 1881. [WWI Draft]

Campbell, Jesse. Jesse Campbell, a young black man, lived in Great Falls 18 1916. He had lived with Nina Green in Havre since 1913, and they moved to Great Falls about Dec 1915. He roomed at 320 Second Avenue South and worked as a bartender in Dotty Hazzard’s resort on Tenth alley south. They lived in the Montana lodging house at Third Avenue South and Third Street. Jesse was the “man” involved in the shooting of Nina Green by Josephine Enoax. [1915 GFCD; GFTD 13 Feb 1916, p. 11; GFTD 12 Feb 1916, p. 2; GFLD 12 Feb 1916, p. 10]

Carlton, Pearl. Pearl Charlton resided at 225 3rd Avenue South in Great Falls during 1893. [GFLD 7 Aug 1893, p. 4]

Carman, Gladstone and Henry May Walton. Gladstone Carman of Great Falls was born in FL in 1886, the son of A. J. and Jennie Thompson Carman. On 8 Oct 1910 in Great Falls, he married Henry May or Mamie Walton of Great Falls. She was born in 1889 in TX, daughter of Albert J. and Mahala Hunley Walton. Mrs. Mamie Walton of Helena was an employee of the black newspaper the Montana Plain Dealer when she married Gladstone Carman. [MTPD 14 Oct 1910, p. 4; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4593]

Carmon, Andrew J. and Jennie. Jennie Carmon (aka Carmen), a black woman, was born in KY about 1862. She came to Great Falls about 1897, and lived at 324 Fourth Avenue South in 1899. In 1900 she lived with her sister, Lizzie, at 223 Second Avenue South and worked as a cook. In 1902 Jennie worked as a domestic and was a widow. She died age 40 or 45 in Great Falls 31 Dec 1902 [by the Cemetery Records] or 30 Dec 1903 [by the 1904-05 Great Falls Directory] and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. Jennie and Andrew Carmon were the parents of Lillie Carmon. [CC Cemeteries, I; 1900 Census MT Cascade County; 1900, 1904-05 Great Falls City Directory; CC Reg Deaths; MTPD 27 Jan 1911, p. 4]

Carman, Mrs. Gladstone. Mrs. Mamie Walton of Helena, an employee of the black newspaper the Montana Plain Dealer, married Gladstone Carman in Great Falls in October 1910. [MTPD 14 Oct 1910, p. 4]

Carmon, Andrew J. and Jennie. Jennie Carmon (aka Carmen), a black woman, was born in KY about 1862. She lived at 324 Fourth Avenue South in 1899. In 1900 she lived with her sister, Lizzie, at 223 Second Avenue South and worked as a cook. Jennie Carmon died age 40 in Great Falls 3 Dec 1902 [by the Cemetery Records] or 30 Dec 1903 [by the 1904-05 Great Falls Directory] and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. Jennie and Andrew Carmon were the parents of Lillie Carmon. [CC Cemeteries, I; 1900 Census MT Cascade County; 1900, 1904-05 Great Falls GFCD; MTPD 27 Jan 1911, p. 4]

Carmon, Lillian M. See Jones, Samuel and Lillian M. Carmon; see also, Thompson, William and Lillian M. Carmon Jones.

Carmon, Lizzie. Lizzie Carmen/Carmon, a black woman, was born in KY in Mar 1882. She lived with her sister, Jennie, at 223 Second Avenue South where both worked as cooks. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Carmon, Spurgeon. Spurgeon Carmon, a young black man, lived at 608 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1917. On 4 Jun 1917, Spurgeon was unmarried and working as a dining car waiter for the Butte to Great Falls Division of the Great Northern Railway. He was born 21 Feb 1892 at Ocala, Florida. In Oct 1917, Carmon was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [WWI Draft; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Carmon, Theodore and Stella Ford. Theodore Carmon [aka Carmen/Carman], a black man, lived at 303 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls from about 1899 to 1907 and worked first as a hall man at the Park Hotel, then as porter at Randall Drug Company in 1900 and later as a porter and a barber at F. J. Peiper’s barber shop. Theodore Carman was born May 1879 at Mayfield KY, the son of Andaio J. and Jennie Thompson Carman. In Sep 1902 Theodore Carman and Jerry Dunnigan were charged with attempted rape of 15 year old Gertrude Simms, daughter of Ed Simms, and 14 year old Mary Baker. Theodore caused a sensation when he took out a license to marry Stella Ford, just 13 years 11 months of age. He was tried in Apr 1903 and acquitted, and one year later on 17 Mar 1904, Theodore Carman and Stella Ford were married in Great Falls by German Lutheran minister Rev. Waschmuth. Stella Ford of Great Falls was born about Apr 1889, the daughter of Joseph Ford and Bettie Woods. Harry D. Stokes married an aunt of Carman. [1899, 1900, 1901, 1903, 1904-05 Great Falls GFCD; Cascade County Coroner’s Inquest #154 5 Apr 1902; GFTD 7 Sep 1902, p. 12; GFTD 8 Sep 1902, p. 8; GFTD 9 Sep 1902, p. 8; GFLD 17 Mar 1904, p. 8; GFLD 23 Sep 1907; CC Marriage Register Book 4, p. 664, No. 2658]

Carnagie, Jesse C. and Mamie M. Ray. Jesse C. Carnagie came to Great Falls about 1903, and in that year he worked as janitor at the Great Opera House and boarded at 113 1/2 First Avenue South. Jesse was born Chicago IL in 1873, the son of Bryan and Anna Smith Carnagie. He had been married and divorced [NFI]. On 4 Nov 1903, Jesse married Mamie M. Ray of Great Falls with Rev. Benjamin McCully A. M. E. Church officiated. Mamie was born in 1865 in VA, the daughter of Sheppard and Mealy Missouri Austin. In 1904-05, Theodore worked as a laborer and the couple lived at 1009 Seventh Avenue South. By 1906 the Carnagies probably moved on from Great Falls. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 2807; 1903, 1904-05, 1906-07 Great Falls City Directories]

Carnew, Henry. Henry Carnew, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Carnew, Homer. Homer Carnew, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Carnew, John. John Carnew, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Carter, Ed. Ed Carter was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 8 Jan 1917, p. 1, 8]

Carter, James Edward and Ella Hunt. James Edward (or Ed) Carter, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916. He was born in MO 1 Jun 1884, the son of J. W. Carter and Nancy Thompson. On 18 Apr 1916 in Great Falls, James married Ella Hunt of Great Falls with Rev. H. R. Rosemond of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Ella was born in MO in 1888, the daughter of John and Lula Thompson Hunt. On 11 Sep 1918 James Edward Carter registered for the World War I draft. He lived at 519 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a porter on the Great Northern Railway. Mrs. Nancy Carter, his mother, resided at 116 Woodland Avenue, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7385; GFLD 8 Jan 1917, p. 1,8; WWI Draft]

Castle, Frank. Oliver Bess, a 25 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 20 Apr 1904, p. 5]

Castleburg, Corinne. Corinne Castleburg was a young mixed race black woman, age about 28, living on the south side of Great Falls in 1903. [GFTD 30 Dec 1903, p. 8]

Cavarro, Alberta B. Alberta B. Cavarro, daughter of Leo and Mary Cavarro, was a student boarding with her mother at 1009 7th Avenue South in 1913. [1913 GF Directory]

Cavarro, Leo and Mary Moore. Mrs. Mary Moore Cavarro, a black woman and the widow of Leo or Leon Cavarro of Sand Coulee, proved up a homestead claim in 1902 on land adjoining and west of that of William Bairpaugh near the East Fork of Sand Coulee Creek. Mrs. Cavarro’s children, Alberta and William L. (born 6 Oct 1898), were identified in school census records by the name Bairpaugh, indicating that Mary and William Bairpaugh may have had a common law marriage. During this period until 1911, Mary and the children lived in Great Falls in the winters so the children could attend school there. In 1913 Mary Cavarro, a domestic, resided with children Alberta B. and William L. at 1009 7th Avenue South. She was a member of Sateba Chapter 62, Order of Eastern Star, and died in Great Falls 7 Jun1916 at age 47 and is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. Her funeral was held at the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church. [Tiger Butte Recollections, p. 107; 1913 GF Directory; CC Cemeteries, I]

Cavarro, Alberta B. Alberta B. Cavarro, daughter of Leo and Mary Cavarro, was a student boarding with her mother at 1009 7th Avenue South in 1913. [1913 GF Directory]

Cavarro, William L. William L. Cavarro, a black man, lived in Great Falls and worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel on 10 Sep 1918. He resided at 912 Fifth Avenue South. He was born 6 Oct 1898 at Great Falls, the son of Leo and Mary Moore Cavarro. Bertha Williams is recorded as the nearest relative living at 115 South Gordon Street, Trinidad, CO. In 1913 William was a porter boarding with his mother Mary at 1009 7th Avenue South. [1913 GF Directory; WWI Draft]

Chadwell, Joseph Philip and Mary [NFI]. Phillip Joseph Chadwell was a black man living in Great Falls from about 1917 until his death in 1953. In 1917 Chadwell ran the black Maple Leaf Club. Philip registered for the World War I draft on 12 Sep 1918 at age 41. He was born 3 May 1877. In 1918 he was living at 300 Fifth Avenue South and working as a farmer for Ed Bigsby. Pauline Chadwell of 1030 Sixth Street North, Nashville, TN, was recorded as his nearest relative. The draft registrar noted that Philip was a gambler running the “Colored Club.” In 1919 Chadwell was living at 300 Fifth Avenue South, working as a rancher and as secretary of the Ozark Club at 323 Second Avenue South. In 1920 Philip Chadwell, born in Nashville, TN 2 May 1876, and Mary, age 37 born in MO, lived at the same address and had two boarders. In 1930 Philip Chadwell was managing a café. He later worked as a laborer and lived at 812 1/2 Eighth Street South before moving to 513 Third Street South. Chadwell died in Great Falls 28 May 1953 at age 77. The Rev. P. Pendarvis of the A. M. E. church conducted his funeral on 4 Jun 1953, and he is buried in Highland Cemetery. [WWI Draft; CC Cemeteries; 1920 Census MT Cascade County; 1919, 1930, 1944, 1953 Great Falls Directories; GFLD 24 Feb 1917; GFLD 28 May 1953, p. 2; GFTD 29 May 1953, p. 8]

Chase, Henry C. and Selina H. Henry C. (or H. C.) and Selina H. Chase lived in Great Falls during the period 1914-1930, living at 609 Eighth Avenue South and later at 1118 Fifth Avenue South. Henry was born in Texas in 1868, while his wife Selina was born in Texas in 1880. Henry worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel.. H. C. Chase was active in a group of black men in Great Falls in January 1918 to send a delegation to the World Peace Conference in Paris during World War I. In 1920 H. C. Chase and S. H. Chase lived at 611 Eighth Avenue South and H. C. worked as a porter at a hotel. H. C. Chase was active in the Immanuel Baptist Church in Great Falls, and served as financial clerk for the church building fund. In 1924 he served as a pallbearer at Mrs. Susie McCracken’s funeral. About 1930, Henry remarried Kate [NFI] who was born about 1887 in Texas. Henry and Kate Chase left Great Falls in 1930-31. [1914, 1916, 1918, 1927-28, 1930 City Directories; GFTD 20 Aug 1920, p. 7; 1920 and 1930 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 3 Jan 1918, p. 5; GFTD 21 Sep 1924, p. 9]

Chase, James R. and Mattie Robinson. James R. Chase of Great Falls was born at Fort Worth TX in 1889, the son of Henry C. and Selma Ward Chase. James took out a license to marry Mattie Castner Robinson in Great Falls on 24 Aug 1916, but the marriage was not recorded. Mattie Robinson of Great Falls was the daughter of John W. and Lida Scott Robinson. She was born in Great Falls in 1892. On 23 Dec 1917, Mattie Robinson and James R. Chase were parents of a baby boy, James R. At that time they were living at 1111 Sixth Avenue South, and James was a student. On 13 Jul 1919, Mattie gave birth to a baby boy in Great Falls, although the residence of the parents was recorded as Seattle, WA. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7631; Certificates of Birth 1917 Great Falls MT, No. 1074; CC Reg Births]

Chase, Kate. See Henry Chase. Second wife of Henry Chase.

Childress, Rev. Joel H. Joel H. Childress an ordained minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A. M. E.) Church came to Great Falls in early 1891. Through his skillful organizational and fundraising abilities, Rev. Childress supervised the building and opening the first A. M. E. church in Great Falls in July 1891. Located at 916 5th Avenue South, the A. M. E. church under Rev. Childress’ leadership became established as the heart of the black community in Great Falls for many years to follow. Rev. Childress left Great Falls in the spring of 1892. [GFTD 9 Jun 1891]

Chisholm, Sidney. Sidney Chisholm was a black man born Nov 1877 in SC and living in Great Falls during 1897-1900. In the 1900 census, Chisholm was in the 313 Third Avenue South jail. [GFLD 17 Jun 1897, p. 4; GFLD 25 Apr 1900, p. 4; 1900 MT Census Cascade County]

Chivers, Richard Henry. Richard Henry Chivers, a black man, lived with his wife Ludia at 313 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a janitor for a Dairy Products company on 11 Sep 1918. He was born 10 Jun 1885. [WWI Draft]

Chrissman, Fred. Fred Chrissman, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1902. [GFTD 8 Mar 1902]

Clark, Daisy. Daisy Clark, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Clark, Eva. Eva Clark, a black woman, lived on the lower South side in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 12 Jan 1901, p. 5; GFLD 10 Jul 1891]

Clark, J. J. Clark was a 21 year old black man living in Great Falls in 1899. [GFLD 19 Jan 1899, p. 4]

Clay, Cleo. Cleo Clay was a 13 year old young black woman born in MT and a niece of Edward Simms, listed in the 1920 census in his household. Cleo was the daughter of Shelby L. and Gertrude C. Simms Clay. [1920 Census MT Cascade]

Clay, Shelby L. and Gertrude C. Simms. Shelby Lewis Clay was a black man living in Great Falls in 1916. He was born in 1877 in MO, the son of Frank and Carrie Harris Clay. On 28 Nov 1916, Shelby married Gertrude Sims of Great Falls with A. M. E. minister Rev. G. E. Horsey officiating. Gertrude was born in 1887, the first black child born in Great Falls and the daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Miller Simms, witnesses were Roy C. Winburn and McKinley Simms. In Apr 1918, Ed Simms retired and turned his Electric City shoe shining parlor on Central Avenue over to his daughter Gertrude. In 1918 Shelby was a shoe shiner at his father-in-law’s shop. In 1919 Shelby L. Clay was working as a porter and boarding with his wife Gertrude at 519 Sixth Avenue South, the home of her parents. When her father died in Jun 1922, Mrs. Gertrude C. Clay was living in Sacramento, CA. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7819; GFTD 15 Apr 1918, p. 2; 1919 Great Falls GFCD; GFLD 14 Jun 1922, p. 8]

Clemens, Omor and Maggie Dodd. On 14 Sep 1917, a baby boy was born in Great Falls to Omor Clemens and Maggie Dodd of 615 Eighth Ave South. Omor Clemens, a black man born in Kansas City MO, was working as a cook. The mother was born in AL [Certificates of Birth 1917 Great Falls MT, No. 753]

Cleveland, Tom. Tom Cleveland, a black man, worked as a laborer and lived in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 20 Jun 1904, p. 2]

Cock, William and Lulu. [See entry for Mr. and Mrs. James and Nellie Lindsey/Lindsay.]

Colbert, T. B. and Lucy. T. B. and Lucy Colbert were a black couple living in Great Falls in 1910. In Jun they served as witnesses at the marriage of Robert Irvine and Sarah Johnson in Great Falls. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4425]

Cole, Grant. Grant Cole was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. Born in 1881, Grant Cole died 4 Apr 1917 at his home on the corner Seventh Avenue South and Seventh Street. He is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Cole, Ward D. Ward D. Cole was a black man, who lived in Helena in 1910, and came to Great Falls about 1913. In 1914 he worked as a porter in Great Falls and roomed at 1111 Sixth Avenue South. The next year Ward Cola and Ray H. Walker operated Cole & Walker Billiard Hall at 315 Second Avenue South. He sang solo at concerts at the A. M. E. Church in Nov 1917. In 1918 he drove a truck for J. W. Robinson and later worked as a bookkeeper for the same firm. On 10 Sep 1918, Ward registered for the World War I Draft at age 37. At that time he was living at 1111 Sixth Avenue South and working as bookkeeper and collector for John W. Robinson. Ward was born 11 Dec 18881. Dollino Cole, a sister, of 302 Sandusky Street, Philadelphia, PA, was recorded as Ward’s closest relative. In 1923, Ward Cole served as a pall bearer at the funeral of Mrs. Suzie McCracken at the A. M. E. church. [1914, 1915, 1918 and 1919 GFCD; WWI Draft; GFTD 9 Nov 1917, p. 5; GFTD 21 Sep 1924, p. 9]

Coleman, Charles and Annie. Charles Coleman was a black man living in Great Falls in 1896. He was born in 1866 in NC. His wife Annie [NFI] was born in NC in 1867. A daughter was born to them 15 Oct 1896 in Great Falls. [CC Register Births and Deaths 1895-1906, No. 183]

Collins, George and Helen H. Banks. George Collins, a black man, came to Great Falls about 1914. He was born in MO in 1889, the son of Charles and Nellie Moore Collins. On 29 Jul 1914 George married Helen H. Banks in Great Falls. Helen was born 8 Jul 1884 in MT, the daughter of William and Susie T. Banks. In 1915 George Collins worked as a porter and the couple resided at 815 Ninth Avenue South. On 5 Dec 1915, Helen gave birth to a baby boy, their second child. By 1916 the Collins had moved to 409 Ninth Avenue South. In 1918 George was a porter at the Elk’s Club. By 1919 the family had moved to 917 Fifth Avenue South. In 1920 the Collins family lived at 501 Fifth Avenue South and consisted of: George working as janitor in club rooms; Helen, baby Bernadet L. age 2 years and 10 months; and brother in law Earl H. Banks. [1915, 1916, 1918, 1919 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6416; 1920 Census MT Cascade; CC Reg Births]

Collins, Mabel. Mabel Collins, a black woman, lived in Great Falls near Rosebud Alley in 1901. She was sentenced to five years for grand larceny in District Court. [GFLD 24 Sep 1901, p. 5; GFLD 16 Oct 1901, p. 5; GFLD 19 Oct 1901, p. 4]

Collins, Reverend Seabron J. Reverend Seabron J. Collins served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Oct 1909 to Aug 1810. He was born in 1851 in GA and married in 1885. Although still married in 1910, his wife was not listed in the 1910 Census. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; 1910 Census MT Cascade County; 1910 GFCD]

Collins, Walter and S. Littlejohn. Walter Collins, a black man, and his wife, S. Littlejohn, lived in Great Falls in 1918. On 31 Jan 1918, S. gave birth to a baby boy, the couple’s second child. [CC Reg Births]

Colston, Nathan and Estella M. Anderson. Nathan (aka Abraham L.) Colston was a black man living in Great Falls during 1900-07. Colston was born in Midway KY in 1875, son of Joseph and Jane Williams Colston. Estella M. Anderson was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1900. She was born in Indiana in Jun 1868, daughter of Jerry and Frances Hurst Anderson. Estella had been previously married. On 14 Jun 1900, Nathan Colston married Estella M. Anderson in Great Falls. During 1901-03 Nathan Colston worked as a porter at Lapeyre Bros and resided at 605 Seventh Avenue South. In 1904 Nathan worked as a porter at 226 Central Avenue and resided at 504 Seventh Avenue South. In May 1904 Nathan was a member of the Masonic order and attended the Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls. In 1906, he was a janitor at the Old Court House block. The Colstons apparently departed Great Falls before 1908. [U.S. Census 1900 Montana Cascade County; CC Marriage Register, Bk 3, p. 715, No. 1941; 1901, 1903, 1904-05, 1906-07 GFCD; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Connell, Charlotte Glovina Bigbee. See also George and Charlotte Glovina Bigbee Connell Smith.

Connell, Henry E. The son of Mrs. Glovina Bigbee Connell, Henry E. Connell was a 15 year old young black man in 1910, born in TN about 1895, and living with his mother and step-father, Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Smith at 713 Seventh Avenue South. In 1913 he worked as a clerk for the Great Northern Railway. By 1919, Henry was married to Alice (NFI), living at 521 Ninth Avenue South. Alice was born in ID about 1893. In 1920, Henry lived with his wife and 1 year 4 months old son, Henry Jr., at 410 Ninth Street South in the home of George E. and Glovina Smith. In 1923, he had been promoted to Chief Clerk at the Great Northern Railway. He worked for the railway for 57 years as a car checker and had been active in thoroughbred racing with membership in the New York Racing Association. Henry E. Connell died in Great Falls 19 Apr 1980 at age 86, and he is buried at Highland Cemetery. He was survived by two sons: Henry, Jr. of Great Falls, and Pat of New York City; and a daughter, Kim Williams of Los Angeles, eight grandchildren and eight great-grandchildren. [1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; Great Falls Directories 1913, 1914, 1915, 1919, 1923; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 22 Apr 1980, p. 5]

Connell, John Porter The son of Mrs. Glovina Bigbee Connell, John Porter Connell was a 17 year old young black man in 1910, born 26 Dec 1893 in Springfield, TN, living with his mother and step-father, Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Smith at 713 Seventh Avenue South. In 1913 he worked as a porter at the Great Falls Hotel. In 1923, John worked as a waiter and lived at 415 Ninth Avenue South. By 1917 John worked as a janitor for the Great Northern Railway and was married to Susie (NFI). John Porter Connell departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. Sue Connell died 19 May 1957 at age 64 in Great Falls and is buried at Highland Cemetery. Sue was born 16 Oct 1892 at Canton, MO. She attended school at Seattle and came to Great Falls in 1924. Sue was a long-time employee of Beckmans. John retired in 1964 after about 20 years at Central Machinery. John Connell died in Great Falls 22 Nov 1972 age 78 years. For over 30 years he had trained and raced horses. Survivors in 1972 were daughters, Mrs. Robert (Jean) Lloyd of Anchorage [in 1957, she was married to John L. Lloyd], and Mrs. Martin (Carol) Hunsberger, Jr. of Minneapolis; a brother, Henry E. Connell of Great Falls; five grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren. John Connell is buried in Highland Cemetery. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; Great Falls Directories 1913, 1914, 1915, 1923, 1927-28; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12; GFTD 20 May 1957, p. 11; GFTD 23 Nov 1972, p. 48]

Connell, Omar. Omar Connell, a black man, was born in TN, the son of Marshall and Charlotte Glovina Bigbee Connell. He came with his family to MT and was raised in Great Falls. Omar Cornell, a 13 year old black boy, lived in Great Falls in 1903 with his mother Glovina and step-father, George Smith. In Feb 1903, Omar was arrested at the request of his step-father for not attending school and running away. Omar died 15 Jan 1920 at Aberdeen, WA, at age 34, and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. See Smith, George E. and Charlotte Glovina Bigbee Connell. [GFLD 24 Feb 1903, p. 5; CC Cemetery Records]

Cook, Lula. Lula Cook, a 32 year old black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFLD 12 Feb 1918, p. 8]

Cook W. D. W. D. Cook, a 30 year old black man, lived in the household of John W. Robinson at 1111 Sixth Avenue South and worked as a clerk in Robinson’s business. Cook was born about 1880 in IA. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Cook, William Lee and Lulu. William Lee Cook, a 25 year old black man, lived with his wife at 513 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1910. His wife, Lulu, was born about 1887 in MN. The couple was married about 1907 and had no children. On 12 Sep 1918, William registered for the World War I Draft at age 39. He worked as porter at Ben Lapeyre’s at 226 Central Avenue and resided there. He was born 5 Oct 1879. His wife, Lulu Cook at an unknown address was recorded as nearest relative. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; WWI Draft]

Cooper, Celia Ann. Celia Ann Cooper, commonly known as Camille, an elderly black woman lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 15 Apr 1898, p. 3]

Cooper, Lee Alvin and Letha Ball. Lee or Leo Alvin Cooper, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916. Leo was born in MO in 1880, the son of J. W. and Levina Louis Cooper. On 19 Dec 1916 in Great Falls, Leo Cooper married Letha Ball of Great Falls. Letha was born in 1876 in Minneapolis, MN, the daughter of John and Lucy Ball Ball. Early in 1918, Lee and Letha Cooper lived at 710 Eleventh Street South, and Lee worked as a laborer. On 12 Sep 1918, Lee registered for the World War I Draft. He was living at 1026 Seventh Avenue South and working as porter at the Rainbow Hotel. His nearest relative was recorded a Lavina Cooper, his mother, at 1111 1/2 Cass Street, Omaha, NE. In 1919, Lee worked as a teamster for John W. Robinson & Son, and Lee and Letha resided at 1026 Seventh Avenue South. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7894; 1918, 1919 GFCD; WWI Draft]

Corrison, Dave. Dave Corrison, a black man, died 12 Mar 1896 from hemorrhage of the lungs at the poor-house, where he had been an inmate for some time. [GFLD 12 Mar 1896, p. 4]

Courtney, William Henry. W. H. or Henry Courtney, a black man, came to Fort Benton by 1882, and served as head waiter on the original staff of the Grand Union Hotel upon its opening 2 Nov 1882. Henry Courtney was born at Bollivar County MS on 5 Jan 1858, the son of Benjamin and Susan Pitman Courtney. In 1884, Henry Courtney stampeded to the Little Rockies mines. He returned to Fort Benton in Sep 1885, saying that he now had two and a half dollars and a dog, the result of one year’s mining. He remained in Fort Benton until early 1887 when he moved to Great Falls. In May 1887, Courtney ran an ice cream making and delivery operation, and in the spring of 1888, he opened the Bay Laundry near Taylor’s Boat House. In June he opened Courtney & Goodwin’s lunch counter in the rear of the Park Theatre. On 15 Sep 1888, Henry Courtney married Mabel G. or Mamie in Great Falls, the first recorded black marriage in Cascade County. In the late 1880s, he was active in Republican party politics and was elected delegate from the Second Ward of Great Falls to the Cascade County convention in 1888. Courtney and his wife were active in black society and in founding the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls, where he served as trustee. He served on the Petit Jury in the December term of the district court in 1891—one of first black jurors in Montana. In late 1881, Courtney paid $1,000 for lot 4, block 419 in Great Falls. By 1892, he operated a barbershop on 1st Ave. So. Between Park Drive and 2nd St and he and Mamie were living at 312 3rd Ave. South. In Oct 1895 Henry and Mamie were divorced, and the next year Henry was a bartender at The Fashion, 2nd St. between 2nd and 3rd Ave. So. [BRW 9 Nov 1882; SRRS 17 Sep 1885, p. 2; Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1888; Polk Directory Great Falls 1892; FBRPW 21 Sep 1887; Polk Directory Great Falls 1892; Polk Directory Great Falls 1896]

Courtney, Mabel Grace Williamson. Mabel Grace or Mamie Williamson, a black woman, was married to W. Henry Courtney in Great Falls on 15 Sep 1888, the first black marriage recorded in Cascade County. Mabel was born at Des Moines, IA 28 Apr 1869, daughter of John and Elizabeth E. Garner Williamson. She and her husband were active in black society and in founding the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. In 1890 Mamie Courtney with Mrs. Tennie Hagan went to Paris Gibson to ask if he would give them a lot for the church. Gibson and the Townsite Company sold the lot to the trustees of the A. M. E. for $1. In Oct 1895 Mrs. Courtney secured a divorce from her husband on grounds of desertion and drunkenness. [GFLD 25 Oct 1895, p. 4; Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1888]

Cox, Horatio Joseph. Horatio Joseph Cox, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 27 Jul 1887 at Hasting, FL, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Crawford, C. P. C. P. Crawford, was a black man living in Great Falls in 1891, when he contributed to a subscription for the new A. M. E. church. [GFTD 9 Jun 1891]

Crawford, George. George Crawford, a back man, lived in Great Falls in 1892, and in Sep of that year, he was elected president of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. [GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4]

Crissman, Fred. Fred Chrissman, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1902. [GFTD 8 Mar 1902]

Crockett, Mrs. Georgia. Mrs. Georgia Crockett, a black woman, living in Great Falls was born in Carroll County, Missouri about 1857. She came to Montana probably from Denver in 1912 to join her son Ira A. King at a ranch near Portage, MT, where he was working. King, age 30, was shot in the head and murdered 30 Nov 1916 and is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. Upon the death of her son, Mrs. Crockett moved to Great Falls Mrs. Georgia Crockett appears in the 1923 Great Falls Directory as “widow” of Alf, and in that year she lived at 1006 Seventh Avenue South. She operated a boarding house for a number of years. She had a daughter, Juanita, a student nurse at the Deaconess Hospital who was living with her in 1937 at 916 1/2 Fifth Avenue South. Mrs. Crockett died 30 Oct 1939 in Great Falls in a fire in her one room house and is buried in Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 30 Oct 1939, p. 1; GFTD 31 Oct 1939, p. 1; CC Cemetery, I; 1937 Great Falls Polk Directory; 1923]

Croffie, George. George Croffie, a black man, was active in black Republican political activities in Great Falls in 1890. He spoke at a meeting of the Republican Colored Club in Oct 1890. [GFLD 25 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Cunningham, Robert J. and Mary Ardell Charpentier Cunningham. Robert J. Cunningham was a black man who came to Great about 1899. He was born at Nashville TN about 1865, the son of John and Rebecca McAdams Cunningham. In 1900 Robert Cunningham worked as a porter at the Hoffman saloon, residing at 306 Fourth Avenue South. During 1901-02 Robert Cunningham was working as a bartender at First Avenue South. On 14 Oct 1901, Robert Cunningham married Marie [Mary] Ardell Charpentier of Great Falls, aged 36 years, born at Paris, France. Marie was previously married and widowed, and the daughter of Louis Hippalite Charpentier and Josephine Gabion. They were married by Catholic Priest Cyr Pauwelyn, witnessed by H. D. Stokes and Rebecca Ross. In 1906-07 Robert Cunningham lived at the same address and worked as porter at Willis & Burris’ The Mint Saloon. [CC Marriage Register Book 4, p. 293, No. 2287; 1900, 1901-02, 1906-07 GFCD]

Dailey, George P. George P. Dailey, a 37 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 9 Sep 1917, p. 16]

Daley, Clarence H. and Minola L. Hinton. Clarence H. Daley, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1909-10. He was born in Michigan in 1874, the son of Henry and Emma Stevens Daley. On 17 May 1909 Clarence of Great Falls married Minola L. Hinton of Great Falls. Minola was born in TN in 1888, the daughter of John and Mary Bell Hinton, and in 1908 she worked as a domestic and resided with her employer at 819 Third Avenue North. Rev. E. D. Abbott of the A. M. E. Church married the couple. In 1910, Clarence worked as a clerk at the Railway Mail Service. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 4057; 1908-09, 1910 Great Falls GFCD; 1910 MT Cascade County Census]

Daniels, Mose. Mose or Moses Daniels, a young black man, lived at 915 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917. On 5 Jun 1917, Moses registered with the World War I Draft in Great Falls. He was born 4 Aug 1893 in TX, and was unmarried. Mose worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Railway Camp in Great Falls. In Oct 1917, Moses Daniel was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917; WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Darling, Queenie. Queenie Darling was a black woman who lived in Great Falls in 1892. [GFLD 1 Apr 1892, p. 5]
Davidson, Philip and Ida. Philip Davidson was carpenter and builder in Great Falls in 1920 and lived with his family in Ward 3 on the south side. Philip was born about 1866 in PA. His wife Ida was born about 1877 in PA. Their three daughters were recorded as “mulatto” in the 1920 census: Lottie A. age 20; Phylis age 17; Christian age 15. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Davis, Charles. Charles David was a blind black man living in Great Falls in 1892. He made his living by peddling lead pencils. [GFLD 14 Oct 1892, p. 5]

Davis, Goldie. Goldie Davis was a black woman living on the South side of Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Davis, Sullivan. Sullivan Davis, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 7 Jul 1891 at St. Joseph, MO, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Davis, Will. Will Davis was a black man who came to Great Falls in mid 1917 from Kansas City, MO. He was employed as a barbershop porter. [GFTD 3 Apr 1917, p. 5]

DeBray, Leon and Minnie Estes. Leon DeBray, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1914. He was born in Cuba in 1872, the son of Leo and Elita Patra Demar DeBray. On 5 Mar 1914 Leon married Minnie Estes of GF with Rev. David W. Sims of the A. M. E. church officiating and Marie H. Dutriueille and Mrs. H. C. Chase witnesses. Minnie was born in KY in 1873, and she had been previously married and widowed. In 1914 Leon worked as a janitor at the Hampton Apartments and resided with his wife at 910 Sixth Avenue South. Minnie DeBray worked in a mailroom at 111 Tenth Avenue South. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 9, No. 6193; 1914 Great Falls GFCD]

Delton, James. James Delton, a black man aged 35, 5'9" height, born Texas lived in Great Falls during 1910-11. [CC Register of Prisoners, v.2]

Demar, George and Gertie Greer. George Demar or DeMar, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1910. He was born in Indiana in 1880, the son of Frank and Alice Taylor Demar. On 1 Jan 1910, George married Miss Gertie Greer of Great Falls with Rev. S. J. Collins of the A. M. E. Church. Gertie was born in 1887 in TX, the daughter of Jesse and Mattie Fitzpatrick Greer. Witnesses were Sadie Hood and C. I. Baxter. In 1910 George Demay worked as a porter at the barbershop of Mrs. May Lohe and resided at 516 third Avenue South. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 7 No. 4265; 1910 Great Falls GFCD]

Dempsey, “Black Jack.” “Black Jack” Dempsey, a black man, was an early lightweight boxer in Great Falls in 1887. [GFTSW 28 Dec 1887, p. 3]

Dennis, Anna McFarlane. See Beatrice and Mary M. Bell Smith Parker.

Diggs, John. John Diggs lived in Great Falls from 1890-95. [GFLD 29 Aug 1890, p. 5; GFLD 19 Dec 1893, p. 4; GFLD 4 Dec 1895, p. 4]

Dodson, Ernest. Ernest Dodson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 23 Dec 1888, and was married. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Doe, Susie. Susie Doe, a black woman, lived in Great Falls during 1895. [GFLD 5 Nov 1895, p. 4]

Doll, William. William Doll, a black American chicken farmer living near the Sun river bridge at Great Falls, lost everything and narrowly escaped with his family from his house. He had a fine stock of chickens, all of which were lost. [GFTD 6 Jun 1908, pp. 1, 9]

Donahue, J. T. J. T. Donahue, a 25 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1901 and worked at the Park Hotel.. [GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Donnell, Mack. Mack Donnell, a black man, was a pianist living in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Dorris, Frank. Frank Dorris, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 16 Sep 1888 at Lawrence, KS, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway at Great Falls. His address was recorded as 1810 Harrison, Kansas City, MO. [WWI Draft]

Dotson, William Henry and Susan M. Payne. William H. Dotson, a black man born in MS in 1871, came to Great Falls about 1916. He worked as a laborer and roomed at 1005 Seventh Avenue South. On 11 Jun 1917 in Great Falls, William married Susan M. Bigbee Payne. She was the daughter of Porter and Elizabeth Gray Bigbee and the widow of William Utley Payne. Susan M. was born 1 Apr 1872 in TN, and was a very active member of the A. M. E. Church. In 1918, William Dodson was working as a porter with the Great Northern railway, and he and his wife owned and lived at 715 Seventh Avenue South. About 1901, Susan married William Utley Payne. She died in Great Falls 22 Mar 1924, with services conducted by Rev. Edwards of the A. M. E. Church and burial in Highland Cemetery. She was survived by her husband; a sister, Mrs. Linda Smith of Great Falls; a brother Edward Bigbee of Portland; two nephews, Henry and John Connell of Great Falls; and a niece living in KY. William continued to live in Great Falls until at least 1942, working for the city. [CC Marriage Licences No. 8323; GFTD 21 Sep 1924, p. 9; GFLD 22 Mar 1932, p. 8; GFLD 25 Mar 1932, p. 8; 1916, 1918, 1919, 1942 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records]

Dow, Mr. and Mrs. Mr. and Mrs. Dow, a black couple attended the Colored Masonic order Hard Times Ball in Great Falls 9 May 1904. Mr. Dow was a Mason. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Dowell, John T and Sarah. John T. [or J. T.] Dowell, a black man, worked in Great Falls owning a barber shop at 15 Third Street South and lived at the same address in the early 1900s. He was born in TX in 1867, and married Sarah [NFI], there in 1898. Sarah, a mixed race black woman was born in TX about 1875. In Feb 1904 J. T. Dowell and R. H. Boradnax sponsored a cake walk for the black community on the dance floor at Luther’s Hall. In 1906-07, J. T. was a barber in the basement of 15 Third Street South and resided near the Sun River Bridge. In 1910 Mr. and Mrs. Dowell lived in the Comer School District, on the road to Ulm. In 1913 John operated a barber shop at 221 First Avenue South, and John and Irene lived in the University addition. By 1915, he was ranching and still residing near the Sun River Bridge. [1904, 1904-05, 1906-07, 1909, 1910, 1913, 1914, 1915 GFCD; GFLD 19 Feb 1904, p. 2; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Dozier, George A. and Ida. George A. Dozier, a 37 year old black man, worked as a porter for the railroad and lived with his wife in Ward 2 at 225 Ninth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1883 in WA. Ida Dozier was born about 1879 in MO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Dubuque, Harry and Clara Fowler. On 25 Jun 1919 at the Deaconess Hospital in Great Falls a child was born to Harry Dubuque and Clara Fowler, residing at the Vaughn Hotel in Great Falls. Harry Dubuque, a black man, was born in IA and worked in Great Falls as a painter. Clara Fowler was born in MN. [CC Reg Births]

Duke, Robert. Robert Duke, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. On 5 Jun 1917, Robert registered for the World War I Draft. He was born 9 Jul 1892 at Atlanta, GA, and was married with a four year old child. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. In Oct 1917, Duke was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [WWI Draft; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Dunbar, Walter. Walter L. Dunbar, an unmarried black man about 43 years of age, died on the railroad tracks between Belt and Armington. He had lived in Great Falls since about 1890. He came from Deer Lodge county and was born in Pittsburg, PA. For several years Dunbar ran a barber chair at the Leland House, and also worked for some time for William H. Courtney. In 1892 W. L. Dunbar was a barber working and living at 118 1/2 First Avenue South. During the winter of 1893-94, he had been in poor health from rheumatism and had been living at the county poorhouse. His health had improved and he planned to go to Belt or Amrington to start a barber chair. Although not in the Old Highland Cemetery Records, he was buried in Great Falls 8 Feb 1894. [1892 GFCD; GFLW 8 Feb 1894, p. 8]

Dunnigan, Jeremiah. Jeremiah or Jerry Dunnigan, a black man, worked as a cook and roomed at 217 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1901. In 1902 Jerry was working as private secretary for Annie Gay. In Sep of that year Dunnigan and Theodore Carman were charged with attempted rape of 15 year old Gertrude Simms, daughter of Ed Simms and 14 year old Mary Baker. Dunnigan and Carman went into hiding. [1901 GFCD; GFTD 7 Sep 1902, p. 12; GFTD 8 Sep 1902, p. 8; GFTD 9 Sep 1902, p. 8]

Dutriueille, Francis Atkicson. Francis Atkicson or Atchinson “Frank” Dutriueille was a black man, the son of Duke and Maria Adams Dutriueille. A dwarf, Frank was commonly known as “Little Duke.” He was born 20 Aug 1881 in Helena and lived with his parents in Helena and Belt. In 1912 after the death of his father, Little Duke came to Great Falls with his mother and sister, Marie. Duke worked as a variously as porter or janitor and lived with his mother at 605 Eighth Avenue South. On 13 Sep 1918, Frank registered for the World War I Draft at age 37. He was working as a common laborer for George Collins at the Elks Club in Great Falls, and lived at his mother’s home at 605 Eighth Avenue South. In 1920 Frank lived in the household of Theo and Marie Ellis and was working as a janitor in a cigar store. Frank died 11 Nov 1930 in Great Falls at age 49 and was buried at Highland Cemetery. [Great Falls Yesterday, pp. 377-79; 1918, 1919, Great Falls Polk Directories; GFTD 19 Jan 1911, p. 7; WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records]

Dutriueille, Maria Adams. Maria Adams Dutrieuille played an important role as a pioneer in Montana. Maria Adams was a free black woman born 15 May 1852 at Lexington, KY. At fifteen years of age, she started working as a cook for the family of Mrs. Boyd, KY state prosecuting attorney. Maria’s sister Mary began working in the household of General and Mrs. Custer at Fort Lincoln, Dakota Territory in 1873. Two years later Maria joined her sister in the household of Mrs. Elizabeth Custer. In June 1876, Maria’s sister Mary accompanied General Custer on his ill-fated expedition as his cook, and testimony later given by Maria to the Army became important in reconstructing the last meeting between Generals Terry and Custer. After the General’s death, Maria and Mary came to Fort Benton by the steamboat Nellie Peck in 1878. On 3 Sep 1880 Maria Adams married the colorful John Lambert “Duke” Dutriueille, and they lived in Helena, Marysville, and Belt. Duke Dutriueille had served as an Aid to General Hooker in the Union Army and had shaved three presidents, Buchanan, Lincoln, and Grant. The Dutriueille’s had three children, two living in 1910. Duke died in Belt 16 Jan 1911. On 17 Apr 1913 Maria moved to Great Falls with children Frank and Marie, where they resided at 605 Eighth Avenue South. Maria Adams Dutriueille died in Great Falls at age 86 on 1 May 1939 and is buried at Highland Cemetery. [Great Falls Yesterday, pp. 377-79; various Great Falls Polk Directories; GFTD 19 Jan 1911, p. 7; GFTD 2 May 1939; CC Cemetery Records]

Dyer, Meshack Henry and Miss Leona Jones. Meshack Henry Dyer, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1919-23. He was born in 1886 in Kingston, Jamaica, the son of Abel and Rebecca Dyer. On 25 Dec 1919 in Great Falls, Dyer married Leona Jones of Great Falls, Rev. D. L. McGriff of Emmanuel Baptist Church officiating. Leona was born 1885 in Canada, the daughter of James Jones. In 1920 Henry and Leona were living at 1209 Sixth Avenue South, and he worked as a laborer. In 1923, the Dyers were living at 303 Third Avenue South, and Henry worked as a porter. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 16, No 9907, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1923 GFCD; GFTD 10 Nov 1920, p. 13]

Early, Richard A. and Jessie Kichlow Johnson. Richard A. Early, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1816. He was born in KS in 1881, the son of Richard and Rhoda Gilmore Early. Richard previously was married and a widower. On 5 Sep 1916, Richard married Jessie Johnson of Great Falls. Jessie was born in IN in 1884, the daughter of George and Carrie Thompson Kichlow. She also was married previously and a widow. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7650]

Edell, Joseph and Susie. Joseph Edell, a 38 black man, lived in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1882 in NY. He lived with his wife at 516 Fifth Avenue South in the historic Vinegar Jones Cabin, the first permanent structure built in the Great Falls townsite in the spring of 1884. In 1920 Joseph worked as a boiler maker at the Anaconda copper smelter. His wife, Susie was born in ND about 1877. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Edmonds, Rose. Rose Edmonds was a black woman living in the lower South side of Great Falls in 1902. [GFTD 17 Sep 1902, p. 8; GFTD 18 Sep 1902, p. 6]

Edrington/Edderington, Mrs. Nancy. Mrs. Nancy Edrington was a black woman, the mother of Mrs. Charles Lawson of Great Falls and the Lawson ranch, several miles from Great Falls. Mrs. Edrington lived with her daughter and son-in-law during the early years of Great Falls. Mrs. Edrington was born in Indiana and died at age 71 in Great Falls about 25 April 1895. Services were held at the A. M. E. Church, Rev. Mr. Byas officiating, and Mrs. Edrington was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 7 Nov 1890; GFTD 27 Apr 1895; GFLD 26 Apr 1895, p. 4]

Edwards, Prince Thornton and Maggie [NFI]. Prince Thornton Edwards was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917, and he was proprietor of the black social club, the Maple Leaf club. On 12 Sep 1918, Prince registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls at age 37. He was born 23 Jan 1881, and worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railway at Great Falls. He lived with his wife Mattie at 303 Third Avenue South. In 1919 Prince worked as a baggage man at the Great Northern. [WWI Draft; 1918, 1919 GFCD; GFLD 31 Jan 1917, p. 8]

Edwards, Rae. Rae Edwards was a young black woman living in Great Falls in 1917. She was born in 1893 in PA, the daughter of Thomas Edwards and an unknown mother. She had been married and divorced. On 1 Mar 1917, T. S. Crane of Butte and Rae Edwards of Great Falls were issued a marriage license, although no marriage was recorded. T. S. Crane was born in TX in 1888, the son of Sam Crane and Lillian LaShall. [CC Marriage Licences]

Ellis, Theodore A. and Marie H. Dutriueille. Theodore A. “Theo” Ellis, a black man, was born 2 Dec 1889 in New Mexico, the son of Merriam H. Ellis and Dora A. Jackson. Theo Ellis worked as a porter at The Hub and at Kenyon & Wheeler drug store. Marie H. Dutriueille was a remarkable black woman, the daughter of Duke and Maria Adams Dutriueille. Marie or Mamie was born in Helena in 1889 and lived with her parents in Helena and Belt. On 17 Apr 1913, Marie moved to Great Falls with her mother and brother Frank. On 6 Aug 1914 Marie married Theodore A. Ellis of Stanford in Great Falls with Rev. David W. Sims, A. M. E. minister officiating. They lived with her mother Maria Dutriueille at 605 Eighth Avenue South. The Ellis’ had five children: Theodore A. Jr., Riadora (or Ria Dora), Mildred H. Ellis, Mariam, and Marie. On 25 Mar 1918, Marie gave birth to a daughter. On 17 Nov 1919, Marie gave birth to second daughter, and on 8 Oct 1921 their third daughter was born. In 1920 the Ellis’ lived at 605 Eighth Avenue South with their children son Theodore A. Jr. age 3 years 6 months; daughter Riadora age 1 year 9 months; and Mildred H. just 2 months old. Their twins, daughters Mariam and Marie were born 8 Oct 1921 in Great Falls and died 19 Oct 1921. Both children are buried at Highland Cemetery. Theo Ellis died 25 Nov 1924 at Choteau and is buried at Highland Cemetery. After the death of her husband, Marie Ellis was very active in the A. M. E. church social and religious activities, worked as a seamstress, and raised her young children. [Great Falls Yesterday, pp. 377-79; various GFCD; GFTD 2 May 1939, p. 12; CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6430; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records]

Enoax, Josephine. Josephine Enoax, aka Mrs. Thomas Enoax, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916 at 203 Seventh Avenue South. She shot and killed Nina Green in a fight over a “man,” Jesse Campbell, and then turned herself in at the police station. She was charged with murder. Josephine Enoax was born in Memphis, TX. She attended school in Kansas City and later attended Norman Institute at Memphis, TN for several years. She was married at 17 and taken from Kansas City through AZ, CO, and brought to Great Falls in May 1914. Her husband, Thomas Enoax, was a railroad man and laborer. There were no children. Josephine's mother lived in Billings for a time and then moved to Detroit for her health. Josephine's sister Mrs. Estella Hurd. [GFTD 13 Feb 1916, p. 11; GFTD 12 Feb 1916, p. 2; GFLD 12 Feb 1916, p. 10]

Erncliffe, Eva. Eva Erncliffe, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFTD 29 Sep 1895, p. 6]

Evans, Gilbert. Gilbert Evans, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1902. [GFLD 13 Dec 1902, p. 5]

Fauquier, Mr. Mr. Fauquier, a black man, joined with other black residents of Great Falls to form a “Limekiln club” in Sep 1889. [GFTD 26 Sep 1889, p. 4]

Ferguson, Ada Frances. See Mrs. Ada Frances Kirby

Ferguson, Ada Frances. See White, Ada Frances Ferguson

Ferguson, Baby. Baby Ferguson, a 2 1/2 month old black female, died in Great Falls 24 Jul 1897. [CC Reg Deaths]

Ferguson, Baby. Baby Ferguson, a 5 month old black female, died in Great Falls 25 Jul 1897. [CC Reg Deaths]

Ferguson, Mrs. Frances M. (Fanny). [See Laura Ferguson] Frances Ferguson, a black woman and the mother of Laura Ferguson, was born in Glasgow, Howard County, MO on 5 March 1847. When Frances was but five years old her mother, who was a slave, was whipped so unmercifully that she never recovered. Frances married William Ferguson, a free born black man and a barber by trade, about 1865 at Fort Leavenworth, KS. They had four children and their daughter Laura was born in 1866. After William left the family, Frances and her daughter emigrated to Montana. At the mining town of Maiden, they rented a cabin, made and sold ice cream, and did laundry. Mrs. Ferguson was a very capable nurse, and served as a doctor in the community. She made medicines from roots and herbs and was known to everyone as “Aunt Fanny.” only one, Laura, still living in 1900. In that year Fanny was living in Gilt Edge, but after the death of Laura’s husband, Fanny came to Great Falls to live with her daughter. Fanny remained in Great Falls until her death 5 Mar 1920. [Great Falls Yesterday pp. 357-58; 1900, 1910 Census MT Cascade County]

Ferguson, John. [See Laura Ferguson] John Ferguson was a black man born in Mar 1851 in TN, the son of Edmund and Anna B. Wilson Ferguson. He served five years with the U. S. Army and was stationed with the 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Shaw. About 1888, he was shot in the arm, and the bullet was never extracted. After discharge, he came to Great Falls about 1890 and on 24 Dec 1891 married Laura Ferguson. Rev. Mr. White of the Presbyterian Church performed the ceremony in the old fire station on Second Avenue South. The Fergusons lived at 1214 Seventh Avenue South and had one daughter, Ada Frances. John Ferguson worked as a porter, and later as janitor at the Great Falls National Bank. In Aug 1893, Ferguson broke up a nighttime robbery of the home of Mrs. Robinson on the South side. In 1897 Dr. C. J. B. Stephens received the first modern x-ray machine with a photographic apparatus attached in Great Falls. John Ferguson asked Dr. Stephens to x-ray his arm to locate a bullet that had been lodged there for the past nine years since he had been shot. Dr. Stephens turned on the x-ray and it revealed a flattened bullet lying close up against the main bone of the forearm. This was the first use of an x-ray in Great Falls. In 1901 John worked as a mortar mixer on construction projects. In May 1902, John deserted his wife and went to Minneapolis, but he came back. In Nov 1904, the Great Falls Tribune stated, “Ferguson is well known about the city as an industrious, honest colored man, and the sound of his bugle is familiar to all. His only fault is that he cannot keep out of trouble, caused principally by asserting his rights. . . [his troubles are] attributed to the fact that while in the regular cavalry service, several years ago, he was wounded by being shot in the head, and that the wound left him with a slight mental derangement. He draws a pension.” John Ferguson passed away 5 Sep 1905. [GFLD 15 Jun 1893, p. 4; GFLD 3 Aug 1895; GFLD 26 Mar 1896, p. 4; GFLD 1 Mar 1897, p. 4; 1900 MT Census; CC Marriage Licenses 1891, No. 208; GFLD 27 Jul 1901, p. 5; GFLD 9 Oct 1901, p. 5; GFTD 1 May 1902, p. 8; GFTD 11 Nov 1904, p. 8]

Ferguson, John Harrison. John Harrison Ferguson, a black baby boy, son of Mr. and Mrs. John Ferguson, was born in Great Falls 7 Sep 1894. He died 27 Feb 1896 in Great Falls of pneumonia and was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 7 Sep 1894, p. 4; CC Reg Deaths; CC Cemetery Records]

Ferguson, Mrs. Laura J. Mrs. Laura J. Ferguson came to Great Falls by 1890 and lived here for more than half a century. She was a black woman who was born at Fort Leavenworth, KS 9 Nov 1866. Her mother Frances Ferguson was born a slave on 5 Mar 1847 in Glasgow, Howard County, MO. Laura’s father, William, was free born in TN and a barber by trade. When he left the family to go to Chicago in the early 1880s, Laura and her mother joined the Athey family, caring for their children, to go by train to Bismarck and then overland by ox train to Fort Maginnis, Montana Territory. Laura and her mother moved on to the mining town of Maiden, starting an ice cream shop & doing laundry. Laura came to Great Falls in 1890 and met John Ferguson who had been a soldier with the 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Shaw. John and Laura were married 24 Dec 1891 at the old fire house on Second Avenue South with the Rev. Mr. White of the Presbyterian Church officiating. At that time the black A. M. E. congregation held their services at the fire station. The School District 1 Census for Aug 1898 lists Frances age 6, daughter of John and Laura Ferguson. The 1900 census records Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson in Lewistown with their daughter Ada Frances, who was born in Great Falls Nov 1891. After a short stay in Lewistown, the Fergusons were back in Great Falls living at 1214 Seventh Avenue South. Mr. Ferguson passed away 5 Sep 1905, and the 1910 census shows Laura in the household of Mr. and Mrs. Henry White, her daughter Frances and son in law. Later, Laura’s mother Frances came to live with her, until the mother’s death 5 Mar 1920. On her deathbed, her mother called a friend, Mr. Lemuel Lucas, to her bedside and asked that he take care of Laura. In 1920 Laura lived at 1214 1/2 Seventh Avenue South with her grandson George White and Lemuel Lucas. [GF Yesterday, 357-58; 1900, 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery; CC Marriage Licenses 1891, No. 208; School District 1 Census Aug 1898]

Fields, Albert. Albert or Alfred Fields, a black man lived in Great Falls in 1918, working as a cook. [GFLD 21 Jan 1918, p. 8; GFLD 18 Jan 1918, p. 8]
Fields, Eva. Eva Fields was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLD 13 Jun 1894, p. 4]

Finger, Gustave. Gustave or Gus or Gust Finger, a 32 year old black man, was a laborer working for the city and lived in Ward 2 at 322 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. On 12 Sep 1918, Gus Finger registered for the World War I Draft. He lived at 320 fourth Avenue South and worked as a teamster for the City Health Department. He was born 15 Mar 1880 in MT. In 1908, Gus was living in Lewistown, MT. His nearest relative was recorded as Gertrude Pimms (?) of 507 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. [GFTD 26 Jan 1908, p. 12; WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Force, Velma. Velma Force was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1919. [GFTD 9 Jan 1919, p. 10]

Foster, A. L. A. L. Foster, a black man, was active in black Republican political activities in Great Falls in 1890. He spoke at a meeting of the Republican Colored Club in Oct 1890. [GFLD 25 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Fournier, Alphas. Alphas Fournier, a 12 year old mixed race child, lived at St. Thomas orphanage in Great Fall 1920. He was born about 1908 in MT. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Fournier, Lottie. Lottie Fournier, a 10 year old mixed race child, lived at St. Thomas orphanage in Great Fall 1920. She was born about 1910 in MT. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Frazier, Maude. Maude Frazier, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1920. [GFTD 23 Nov 1920, p. 9]

Frierson, Julia. Julia Frierson, born in TX Jul 1881, was a young black woman working as a domestic servant for Mr. and Mr. Robert Gordon at 300 Third Street North in Great Falls in 1900. In Feb 1904 Julia and her partner Charles Johnson participated in a cake walk contest on the dance floor of Luther’s Hall. [GFLD 19 Feb 1904, p. 2; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Gainey, John D and Alida. John D. Gainey, a black man, worked as clerk for the railway mail system and resided at 305 Sixth Avenue South with his wife Alida from about 1903 until his death about 1917. In Aug 1904 John D. Gainey and Washington G. Taylor were selected to represent Great Falls Afro-Americans at a National Afro-American council in St. Louis 6-8 Sep. In 1920 Mrs. Alida Gainey, a 48 year old black woman, worked as a chambermaid at the Burlington Hotel and lived in Ward 2 at 307 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls. She was born about 1872 in MO and a widow. Mrs. Alida Gainey passed on in Great Falls 4 Mar 1940 at the age of 70. She is buried at Highland Cemetery. [1903, 1906-07, 1910, 1913, 1915, 1918, 1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 26 Aug 1904, p. 5; CC Cemetery Records]

Gamble, Lloyd. Lloyd Gamble, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 14 Mar 1885. He worked as a porter for the Great Northern depot and resided with his wife at 1118 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls. [WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Ganey, D. D. Ganey was a black man living in Great Falls in 1906. He worked as a mail clerk on the Great Falls to Butte route. [MTPD 4 May 1906, p. 4]
Garner, Grace Beattie. Grace Beattie was born in Ohio in 1882 to Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Beattie. Her husband’s first name is unknown. Grace Garner died 30 Sep 1914 in Great Falls and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I]

Garretson, Cad. Cad Garretson was a black woman living in the lower South side of Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1902 she moved to Butte but returned to Great Falls later in the year. [GFTD 17 Sep 1902, p. 8; GFTD 18 Sep 1902, p. 6]
Garrison, Cad/Clara. Cad [Clara] Garrison was a black woman living at 202 Rosebud Alley in Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 11 Apr 1908, p. 4; 1908 Great Falls Directory]

Garrison, Carrie B. Hood. Carrie B. Hood, a black woman, lived in Great Falls 1901-10. She was born in KY about 1868 to Mr. George and Georgia Taylor Hood. Her husband’s first name is unknown. She testified in court in Oct 1901. Carrie boarded at 211 Fourth Avenue South. In 1908 Carrie lived and worked on the lower South side. She died in Great Falls and was buried at Old Highland Cemetery 28 Dec 1911. [GFLD 24 Sep 1901, p. 5; GFLD 14 Oct 1901, p. 8; GFTD 14 Apr 1908, p. 5; CC Cemeteries, I; 1910 GFCD]

Garth, Isaac. Isaac Garth, a black man, served as pallbearer at the funeral of Mrs. John Taylor in Great Falls in Mar 1918. [GFTD 7 Mar 1918, p. 2]

Garvey, Christopher C. Christopher C. Garvey (also C. C. Garvie), a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898-1900. He worked as an engineer at the Ford block and lived at 205 Fourth Avenue South. In 1901 he moved to Kalispell. By 1919, Chris Garvey was back in Great Falls, helping Daniel Briley at his restaurant at 223 Second Avenue South and rooming at 320 Second Avenue South. [GFLD 24 Dec 1898, p. 6; 1899, 1900, 1901, 1919 GFCD]

Gay, Annie. Annie Gay (aka Annie Jones) lived at 221 Third Alley South in the Red Light District of Great Falls in 1900-01. She was described as “one of the gayest of the gay colored ladies who disport themselves in a certain quarter of the city.” [GFLD 8 May 1900, p. 4; GFLD 8 Nov 1901, p. 5]

Giles, William H. and Virginia. William H. Giles, a black man born in VA Jan 1868, lived in Great Falls in 1900 with his wife Virginia. Virginia was born in Jun 1872 in TN. They were married in 1895. Both worked as servants in the household of Mr. and Mrs. William G. Conrad at 316 Fourth Avenue North. [1900 Census MT Cascade County]

Gillan, Woods. Woods Gillan was a young black man living in Great Falls in 1918. [GFLD 14 Jan 1918, p. 5]

Gillman, William. William Gillman was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 8 Jan 1917, p. 1, 8]

Glover, Ada. Ada Glover was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 23 Nov 1917, p. 8]

Glynn, Mrs. Lizzie Glynn. Mrs. Lizzie Glynn, a black woman, served as witness at the marriage of James Carter and Ella Hunt in Great Falls in 1916. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7385]

Goodbar, John. John Goodbar was a black man living in Great Falls in 1911. [GFTD 7 Nov 1911, p. 5]

Gordon, Charlie. Charlie Gordon was a black man living in Great Falls in the early 1890s. He served as porter and played piano at the Mascot Theater. He later worked in Cascade. [GFLD 16 Mar 1894, p. 4; GFLD 29 Jul 1895, p. 4; 1893 Gazetteer of the City of Great Falls]

Gowey, Christopher. Christopher Gowey, a 57 year old black man, was an unemployed laborer and lived at 217 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Jun 1842 in MI. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Graham, Alfred. Alfred Graham was a black man living in Great Falls in 1892. [GFLD 7 Jan 1892, p. 5]

Granberry, Newton T. and Mamie. Newton T. Granberry, a 34 year old mixed race black man, was proprietor of a clothes cleaning business in Great Falls in 1919-20 and lived with his wife in Ward 2 at 313 Fourth Street South. Newton was born in 1886 in MS. His wife Mamie was born in 1885 in TN, and she was proprietor of a cigar store. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD; GFLD 22 Nov 1920, p. 8]

Grant, Ples. In Jun 1908, Ples Grant, a black man, played third base on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4]

Graves, Charles. Charles Graves was a black man living in Great Falls in 1891. [GFTD 13 May 1891, p. 5]

Gray, Thomas. Thomas Gray or Grey, a 56 year old black man, worked as a cook and lived in Great Falls in 1898. He had lived in Cascade County for about ten years. On 8 Aug 1898, Thomas Gray died of Brights disease on the Poor Farm. [GFLD 4 Mar 1898, p. 4; CC Reg Deaths]

Gray, Vernie. Vernie Gray, a black woman, lived on Third Alley South in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 19 Sep 1901, p. 8]
Green, Edwin. Edwin Green, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 25 Jul 1887 at Laramie, WY, and was unmarried. He worked as a bartender for Will Jackson and resided at 112 Third Street South in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Green, George. George Green, a black man, was a soldier stationed at Fort Assiniboine. Thanksgiving day 1902, he was discharged from service and left Assiniboine in a Montana Central boxcar for Great Falls. On the trip his right foot was frozen almost solid. He went on to Belt and went to work for Harry Zick until it became impossible to continue. His foot was in such terrible shape that in Mar 1903 the Cascade County Commission ordered that the county would care for him and he was sent to the Deaconess Hospital, possibly for a foot amputation. [GFLD 6 Feb 1903, p. 8]

Green, Nina. Mrs. Nina Green, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916. She was born 24 Aug 1876 in AL, the daughter of Nathan and Triphla Williams Allen. Early the morning of 12 Feb 1916, Nina was shot and killed at the home of Mrs. Thomas Enoax at 203 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls. The killing by Mrs. Enoax resulted from a fight over a man. Nina is buried in Highland Cemetery. [1916 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 12 Feb 1916, p. 2; GFTD 13 Feb 1916, p. 11; GFLD 12 Feb 1916, p. 10]

Greer, Miss Gertie. See George and Gertie Greer Demar.

Gregg, Cora. Cora Gregg, a black woman, lived on the south side of Great Falls in 1915. [GFLD 21 Jul 1915, p. 8]

Grey, Thomas. Thomas Grey was a black man living in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 4 Mar 1898, p. 4]
Griffin, Francis. Francis Griffin, a 35 year old black man, farmed near his brother Martin R. Griffin near Truly. Francis was born in Sep 1864 in MN. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Griffith, C. B. C. B. Griffith was a black man living in Great Falls in 1891. In June of 1891, Griffith contributed $5 to the subscription fund to build the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. [GFTD 9 Jun 1891]

Griffin, Martin R and Mary M. Ray. Martin R. Griffin was a black man who lived in Great Falls as early as Apr 1890, and then farmed southwest of Great Falls near Truly. He was born in July 1859 in MN with parents James and Mary Brown Griffin, came to MT in the 1880s, was issued a homestead patent near Truly in 1897 and lived there until his death 30 Dec 1927. Martin Griffin married Mary M. Ray 23 Jul 1896 in Great Falls. She was born in 1864 in VA, the daughter of William Brown and Fannie Leslie. In 1900 Martin was farming at Truly, and his wife Mary M. was a cook at the hotel of John and Mattie Castner in Belt. Martin Griffin is buried in Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 15 Aug 1890, p. 4; GLO Patent records; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co. Truly; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; Various GFCD—rural GF farmer; CC Cemetery Records]

Griffith, Samuel H. Samuel H. Griffith was a black man living in Great Falls in 1896. In February 1896, Griffith was sentenced to eighteen months at Deer Lodge for burglarizing Mrs. Charles Lawson’s saloon. [GFTD 6 Feb 1896]

Grimes, Catherine. Mrs. Catherine Grimes was a black woman, born Jan 1821 in NC, and living in Great Falls in the early 1900s, the widow of Thomas Grimes. From 1900 to 1907, she boarded at 711 Eighth Avenue South with David and Katie Knott. Catherine Grimes died 20 Nov 1907 at age 87 at her home. Her funeral was held 21 Nov at the A. M. E. Church with services conducted by Rev. James Hubbard, and she is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I; 1900-1903 Great Falls Polk and Ridgley Directories; GFTD 21 Nov 1907, p. 8; 1900 Census MT Cascade County]

Grisby, Samuel. Samuel or Sam Grisby was a black man living is Great Falls from 1894 to 1896. He was head bellboy at the Park Hotel. On 28 Jul 1896, Sam died at the Columbus hospital from consumption. He was 31 years old and believed to be from VA. He came to MT as a soldier and was stationed at Missoula until he came to Great Falls. The Tribune stated, “He was a faithful servant, trustworthy and energetic, ad had the confidence of employers and the traveling public.” Sam’s funeral was held from McBratney’s undertaking parlors, and he was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [GFLW 3 May 1894, p. 6; 1896-97 GFCD; GFTD 29 Jul 1896, p. 4]

Gross, Pete. Pete Gross was a black man living in Great Falls in 1896. GFLD 5 Jun 1896, p. 4]

Guger, Jesse. Jesse Guger, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 9 Sep 1918. He was born 25 Dec 1882. He worked as a transfer clerk for the U. S. government and lived with his wife May at 220 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. Earlier in 1918, Jesse had worked as a waiter. [WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Gumm, Carrie. See Hubert and Carrie Gumm Thompson.

Gunther, Kate. Kate Gunther, alternatively spelled Katie Guenther, was a black woman living in Great Falls during 1892-93. She had a house at 207 Second Street South [GFLD 3 Nov 1893, p. 4; GFLD 4 Nov 1893, p. 4; 1892 and 1893 Gazetteer of the City of Great Falls]

Guy, Charles. Charles Guy, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1890. He was elected president of a black Republican political club at Minot Hall 6 Oct 1890. [GFLD 7 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Guyler, John X. John X. Guyler, a young black man, lived at 305 Nonth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917. In Oct 1917, John Guyler was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Hagan, George. See Mrs. Tennessee Bigbee Finn Hagan.

Hagan, Mrs. Tennessee Bigbee Finn. Tennessee Bigbee, a mixed race black woman, was born in TN in 1856 by the 1880 census [or KY in 1853 by other sources] to Porter and Elizabeth Thompson Bigbee. She lived in Fort Benton in the 1880s with her husband John Gibson Finn. Upon his death in Feb 1889, Mrs. Finn, commonly called Tennie, moved to Great Falls and married Mr. Hagan (aka Hagin or Hagen). This may have been George Louis Hagin/Hagan. In 1890 Mrs. Tennie Hagin ran a grocery and lived at 713 7th Avenue South. The next year, Mrs. Tennie Hagin and Mrs. Mamie Courtney went to Paris Gibson to ask if he would give them a lot an A. M. E. church. Gibson and the Townsite Company sold the lot to the trustees of the Church for $1. Tennie Finn Hagan was active in black society and in founding and supporting the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. The original founders of the A. M. E. church were Mrs. Tennie Hagan, Mrs. Mamie Courtney, Edward Simms, and William Morgan. In 1892 Mrs. Tennie Finn proved up her preemption claim covering lots 7 and 9 in section 5, township 19 North, range 3 East. The 1900 census indicates that Tennessee Hagan had been married three times, the third marriage to George Hagan for three years in 1900. She was working as a cook in a restaurant. In 1910 Tennie lived at 713 Seventh Avenue South with her mother Elizabeth, brother John, and two step-sons Russell and Wallace Hagan. In 1902 Tennie Hagan owned and lived at 713 Seventh Avenue South. Tennie Hagan died 28 May 1923 in Great Falls and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [1890, 1913 Great Falls Directories; GFTD 7 Nov 1890; GFLD 29 Feb 1892, p. 4; 1900, 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemeteries, I; 1870, 1880 Census Tennessee]

Hagan, Wallace Hemar and Irene Sarah Ison. Wallace Hemar Hagan (or Hagen/Hagin), a 20 unmarried black man, worked as a teamster and lived with his step-mother, Mrs. Tennessee Hagan, at 713 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. He was born about 1890 in MT. By 1913 Wallace was working as a teamster, now married to Irene Sarah Ison, and living at 916 1/2 Fifth Avenue South. Wallace and Irene lived at 1304 Sixth Avenue South on 4 Jul 1915 when Irene gave birth to a baby boy, their first child. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 GFCD; CC Reg Births]

Hagin, George Louis, Jr. George Louis Hagin, Jr., a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 24 Aug 1886 at Great Falls, and was unmarried. He worked as a farm laborer for J. B. Taylor at Cascade, MT. His father, George Louis Hagin, was probably married to Mrs. Tennie Finn Hagin/Hagan. George Hagan departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Hagin, Russell Algur and Teletha Spencer. See also Mrs. Tennessee Bigbee Finn Hagan. Russell Algur Hagin (or Hagen/Hagan), a black man, lived in Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1910 Russell, a 23 unmarried man, worked as a teamster and lived with his step-mother, Mrs. Tennessee Hagan, at 713 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. He was married to Teletha Spencer, and in 1914 they lived at 2208 Fifth Avenue South. Russell worked as a teamster for the Nilson-Smith Co. They had two children, Lillian and R. A. Jr. R. A. Jr. was born at the Deaconess Hospital 17 Sep 1914 and died four days later and is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. This was their first child. Teletha Hagin died 5 Oct 1916, at age 21 and is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. On 18 Jun 1917, Russell registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls. He was born 20 Jun 1888 at Great Falls. In 1917 Russell was unmarried and living with his step-mother, but reported one child (Lillian) and his mother (Mrs. Hagan) as nearest relatives. He was farming on his own farm seven miles from Great Falls. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; WWI Draft; 1914 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 6 Oct 1916, p. 6; CC Reg Births]

Hagin Jr., Russell Algur. Russell Algur Hagin, Jr., a black child born to Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Hagin 17 Sep 1914, died four days later and is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I]

Hall, Jasper. Jasper Hall was a black man living in Great Falls in 1893. [GFLD 17 Jan 1893, p. 8]

Hall, Lafayette. Lafayette Hall was a black man living in early Great Falls. He first appeared in Montana territory in the 1880 census as a servant in the household of an elderly white woman at Fort Assinaboine. By November 1882, "Fayette" as he was known, was in Fort Benton, working on the staff of the Grand Union Hotel. In 1883, Fayette Hall married Miss Lydia Johnson in Fort Benton at the home of the bride’s mother Mrs. Henrietta A. Johnson. Their wedding ceremony was attended by an interracial group prominent in society, and the Fort Benton River Press described the bides as “the belle of Benton in the colored circle.” For several years, Fayette Hall made a modest living in Fort Benton, serving as janitor at the city hall. By 1887, he had a small ranch on the Teton near Government coulee, and in 1890 he had moved his family to Great Falls. A daughter was born 24 Jun 1890 in Great Falls. [FBRPD 16 Nov 1883; FBRP 21 Jan 1885; FBRP 27 Jul 1887; GFLD 29 Jun 1890; GFLD 7 Jun 1892, p. 5]

Hall, Louis. Louis Hall was called as a witness to an incident at the Ozark Club on the south side of Great Falls in May 1917. [GFLD 16 May 1917, p. 5]

Hall, Mrs. Lydia Johnson. See Lafayette Hall.

Hallowell, Genevive. Genevive Hallowell, a 36 year old black woman, worked as a hair dresser and lived in Ward 2 at the home of Hershel and Marie Moore at 301 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. She was born about 1884 in CO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Hamilton, Beulah. Beulah Hamilton was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 5 Mar 1917, p. 6]

Hamilton, Grace. Grace Hamilton was a black woman, born about 1895, living in Great Falls around Fifth alley south, near Fourth Street in 1917. [GFTD 5 Mar 1917, p. 7]

Harmon, Annie. Annie Harmon, a black woman, lived on the lower South side of Great Falls in 1902. [GFLD 5 Jul 1902, p. 5]

Harper, William Henry. William Henry Harper, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 24 Sep 1895 at Purcell, OK, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer at the freight house of the Great Northern Railway. Henry’s address is recorded as 501 East Washington, Andasko, OK. [WWI Draft]

Harris, Ed. Ed Harris was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 6 Jan 1917, p. 3]

Harris, Doherty. Doherty Harris, a black woman, lived on the South side of Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 19 Sep 1908, p. 4]

Harris, Stewart. Stewart Harris, a 28 year old black man, worked in Great Falls as a bootblack with a stand in front of the Central cigar store in 1902. [GFTD 6 Mar 1902, p. 8]

Harris, W. G. W. G. Harris was a black man living in Great Falls in 1900. He worked as porter at Nicholas “Nick” O’Brien’s barbershop in the basement of 209 Central Avenue. [GFLD 29 Jun 1900, p. 1; GFLD 30 Jun 1900, p. 4]

Harris, Will. Will Harris, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 21 Jul 1887 at Memphis, TN, and was unmarried. He worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railway and resided 206 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. Will Harris departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Harris, William. William Harris, a 30 year old black man, worked as a porter at a hotel and lived in Ward 2 at 220 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1890 in MO and was unmarried. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Harris, William Stewart. William Stewart Harris was a black man living in Great Falls during the period 1903-07. He worked as a porter and shoe shiner at Ward’s Cigar Store at 224 Central Avenue and resided at 207 Fourth Avenue South. In Dec 1907, he was a pallbearer at William Brown’s funeral. [GFLD 29 Jun 1903, p. 5; GFLD 30 Jun 1903, p. 8; 1904-05 Great Falls GFCD; GFLD 4 Dec 1907, p. 3]

Harrison, Walter George. Walter George Harrison, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 4 Apr 1885 at KS. He worked as a barber at his own barbershop at 122 Third Street South in Great Falls. He resided at 209 Seventh Avenue South. In 1919 Walter G. Harrison and Mamie [NFI] lived at 209 Seventh Avenue South, and Walter worked as a barber. Walter died 5 Oct 1920 at age 32. [WWI Draft; 1918, 1919, 1923 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records]

Hart, Henry. Henry Hart was a black man who lived in Great Falls in 1900. [GFLD 8 Aug 1900, p. 4; GFLD 11 Aug 1900, p. 3]

Harvell, Robert. Robert Harvell, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 8 Mar 1890 at Palaska, TN, and was unmarried. He worked as a freight handler for the Great Northern. [WWI Draft]

Hase, John E. John E. Hase was a black man living in Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1901 he was a piano player at one of the houses in the Tenderloin district. [GFTD 24 Jan 1901, p. 10]

Haskell, Bert. Bert Haskell, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 13 Feb 1878. He worked as a baggage man for the Great Northern Railway and resided at 721 Sixth Street South in Great Falls. His closest relative was recorded as Jane Green of 816 East Center Street, Topeka, KS. [WWI Draft]

Hart, Henry. Henry Hart was a black man who lived in Great Falls in 1900. [GFLD 8 Aug 1900, p. 4; GFLD 11 Aug 1900, p. 3]

Hatton, James T. Hatton, James T and Olive Williams Raddick. James T. Hatton was a black man living in Great Falls in 1904-08, and working as porter part of the time and as a teamster residing at 509 Fourth Avenue South. Hatton was born in 1872 in MD, the son of Joshua and Irene Hatton. On 18 Dec 1916, James married Mrs. Olive Raddick of Great Falls with Rev. G. E. Horsey, A. M. E. minister officiating. Olive was born in IA in 1876, the daughter of Daniel Williams. She had been previously married to [NFI] Raddick. [1908-09 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7887; GFLD 11 Apr 1904, p. 5; GFLD 8 Jun 1904, p. 5]

Hatton, Mary. Mary Hatton was a black woman who lived in Great Falls on and off in the early 1900s. She was known as “Bloody Knife Mary” and lived on the South side in 1909. She earlier lived in Great Falls and then moved to Roundup, where she operated a hand laundry. By 1909 she was back in Great Falls. [GFTD 9 Dec 1909, p. 6; Polk Great Falls Directory 1908-09]

Hatton, Mrs. Olive. Mrs. Olive Hatton was a black woman living on Third avenue South, between Second and Third streets. [GFTD 9 Nov 1911; GFTD 5 Dec 1911, p. 7]

Hayden Mrs. and Miss. Mrs. Hayden, a black woman, with her daughter attended the Colored Masonic order Hard Times Ball in Great Falls 9 May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Hayes, Robert M. and Edna Lindsay. Robert M. Hayes, a young black man, was born in AR in 1886, the son of Richard and Victoria Robinson Hayes. Robert Hayes lived in Great Falls in 1915 and worked as a bootblack at Ed Simms’ shoeshine parlor at #8 Third Street South. Hayes. Hayes was known as “Fifty-fifty Hayes” and roomed at the Arvon Block. On 1 Nov 1915 in Great Falls, Robert married Miss Edna Lindsay of Great Falls. Edna, the daughter of James and Nellie Lindsay, was born in Great Falls in 1898. On 18 October 1915 Robert Hayes was shot and killed by Robert Turner in the Pullman Hall at Billings. He left his widow in Great Falls. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7082; GFLD 18 Oct 1916; 1915 GFCD]

Haynes, Edward W. and Etta Carney. Edward W. Haynes was a young black man living in Great Falls in 1908. He was born in 1884 in MO, the son of Henry Haynes and Mollie Johnson. On 3 Jan 1908, Edward Haynes married Etta Carney of Great Falls at the A. M. E. Church, Rev. E. D. Abbott officiating. Etta was born in Washington State in 1885, the daughter of Frank Carney and Mary Carney. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 3736]

Hays, Mr. and Mrs. Mr. and Mrs. Hays, a black couple, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and participated in a cake-walk contest at the opera house as a fund raiser for the A. M. E. Church. [GFLW 30 Aug 1894, p. 2]

Hays, John E. John E. Hays, a black man, lived in Great Fall in 1901. [GFLD 23 Jan 1901, p. 4]

Haywood, William. William Haywood, a black man came to Great Fall in Aug 1901 from a ranch twelve miles from Helena. In Great Falls Haywood worked first for Dr. Adams and George A. Poole and then as janitor at the Tod block. The night of 3 Apr 1902, a neighbor, Harry D. Stokes, confronted him and provoked a fight. Haywood, who had been ill and bed-ridden for several days, defended himself by striking Stokes over the head three times with a stove poker. Stokes later died of the blows, and Haywood was charged with murder. He was tried and acquitted by a jury 29 Apr 1902. William Haywood died 5 May 1934 in Great Falls age 83 years. He was buried in the county plot at Old Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 4 Apr 1902, p. 6; GFTD 23 Apr 1902, p. 8; GFTD 29 Apr 1902, p. 8; GFTD 30 Apr 1902, p. 8; CC Cemetery Records]

Hazelwood, James. James Hazelwood was a black man who came to Great Falls in August 1892, following the horse racing circuit. In Sep 1892 James was elected secretary of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. [GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4; GFLD 29 Aug 1892, p. 4; GFLD 31 Aug 1892, p. 5; GFTD 30 Aug 1892]

Henderson, J. R. J. R. Henderson, a black man, lived in Great Falls and in fall of 1892 He became corresponding editor of the first black newspaper, The Advocate, to be published in the state of Montana. Henderson previously held the position of secretary of the “colored democratic league in Chicago in 1884. The Advocate was funded by Cascade County Democrats during the 1892 election campaign in Great Falls, in attempt to sway black voters away from the Republican party. The weekly paper was “devoted to the interests of the colored people of the country in general . . . [with] especial attention to those residing here.” The Advocate probably survived for only a short while, and no issues have been located. [GFTD 10 Sep 1892; GFTD 17 Sep 1892; GFTD 21 Sep 1892; GFTD 27 Sep 1892]

Henderson, Mr. Mr. Henderson, a black man, preached and sang at the A. M. E. Church in Apr 1903. [GFLD 4 Apr 1903, p. 3]

Henry, George and Elsie. George Henry, a 42 year old black man, worked as a porter in a bank and lived with his wife Elsie and family on Second Avenue South in 1910. George was born about 1868 in PA, and married Elsie in 1900. She was born about 1879 in AR and worked as a clerk in a hotel in 1910. Their children included: Ethel born 1902 in MT; Frank born 1905 in MT; and Sadie born 1908 in MT. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Henry, John. John Henry, a black man, worked as a laborer and lived in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 20 Jun 1904, p. 2]

Heron, Charles. Charles Heron was a black man living in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 21 Jul 1898, p. 4]

Hicks, William. William Hicks was a black man living in Great Falls during 1895. [GFTD 1 Oct 1895, p. 5]

Higgins, Rose. Rose Higgins, a young black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1904. [GFTD 11 Nov 1904, p. 8]

Highwarden, Harry D. and Clara L. Roof. Harry D. Highwarden, a young black man worked as a musician at 208 Third Avenue South and resided three in Great Falls in 1902-03. He was born in OH in 1876, the son of J. W. Highwarden and Mary Lindsay. On 1 Dec 1902 in Great Falls, Harry married Clara L. Roof of Great Falls. Clara was born in 1884 in OH, the daughter of Frank Roof and Bertha Cummings. [CC Marriage Register Book 4, p. 591, No. 2585; 1903 GFCD]

Highwordon, James and Mary Higgins. James Highworden, a black man, worked as a barber for W. H. Courtney and resided at Fourth Avenue South and Second Street in Great Falls in the early 1890s. James, and his wife Mary Higgins Highwordon, were recorded as parents of Miss Lyda Highwordon of Great Falls upon her wedding 1 Jul 1890 in Great Falls. [GFCD 1893; Cascade Co. Marriage Licenses 1890]

Highwordon, Lyda. See Aaron M. and Lyda Highwordon Baxter.

Hill, Charles. Charles Hill, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 15 Sep 1892 at Black Run, LA, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Hill, Fred A. and Anna Lindsay. Anna Lindsay was born in Great Falls in 1900, the daughter of James and Nellie MacKenzie Lindsay. She married Fred A. Hill in Great Falls on 21 May 1923. Fred was born in 1891 at Riverside, CA, the son of William and Lucy Kemp Hill. Neither Anna nor Fred had been previously married. [CC Marriage Licenses, No. 11521]

Holland, Mrs. Alice. See William R. and Alice Holland.

Holland, Blanton. Blanton Holland, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 15 Aug 1897. He worked as a laborer in a shoe store, and lived at 114 First Avenue South in Great Falls. His nearest relative, Frank Holland of Porter, OK. [WWI Draft]

Holland, Dock and Marguerite Walls. Dock Holland, a black man, was living in Great Falls in 1918. He was born 1888 in LA, the son of Frank and Martha Durett Holland. He was married and a widower. On 18 Mar 1918 in Great Falls, Frank married Marguerite Walls of Great Falls. Marguerite was born in 1896 in TX, the daughter of Gentry and Effie Terry Walls. Marguerite previously had been married and divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 13, No. 8975]

Holland, William R. and Alice. William Holland was a black man living in Great Falls in 1913-16 and working as a musician. Holland owned the Manhattan Club with Ray Walker. His wife Alice was a black woman living at 205 Tenth Avenue South in 1917. By 1918 the city directory lists only Alice. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12; GFTD 7 Sep 1917, p. 6; 1913, 1914, 1916, 1918 GFCD]

Holmes, Elijah and Viola. Elijah Holmes, a black man, worked in Great Falls as a bartender at Eli Shelby’s place. Elijah and Viola Holmes lived in Great Falls in 1903. In Mar 1903 Viola moved to Havre. [GFLD 30 Mar 1903, p. 5; GFLD 31 Mar 1903, p. 5]

Holmes, John. John Holmes, a 41 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 10 Sep 1917]

Honkinson, William L. and Lulu Lindsay. William L. Honkinson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1906. He was born in NY in 1880, the son of Joseph and Essex Cook Honkinson. On 14 Mar 1906, William married Miss Lulu Lindsay of Great Falls, with Rev. W. L. N. Baker of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Lulu was born in St. Paul, MN, in 1886, the daughter of James and Nellie McKenzie Lindsay. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3288]

Hood, George and Georgianna. George and Georgianna [aka Georgia] Hood moved to Great Falls about 1902 and resided at 205 Fourth Ave South. George apparently died before 1903 although he is not listed as being buried at Highland Cemetery. In May 1904 Mrs. Hood attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls. [1903, 1904-05, 1906-07 GFCD; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Hood, Sadie. Miss Sadie Hood was a young black woman living in Great Falls 1904-1910. In 1903 she was boarding at the home of her mother, Georgia Hood, at 205 Fourth Avenue South and working as a clerk. In Jan 1910, Sadie witnessed the marriage of George Demar and Miss Gertie Greer. [1903, 1904-05 GFCD; GFLD 4 Dec 1907, p. 3; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4265]

Horsey, George Edward and Lily E. Reverend George Edward Horsey of the A. M. E. Church was born in MD in 1869. In Sep 1916 he was assigned to the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. With his wife, Lily or Lillie E. Horsey led the black religious community in Great Falls for 29 months gaining the respect of the white majority in Great Falls. He was born in MD in 1916. Rev. Horsey found a congregation in disarray, with membership sagging and the old 1891 wood frame church falling apart. With the help of his wife, Lily, Rev. Horsey energized the black community and found key support from the majority white community. In a remarkable six-month campaign, Rev. Horsey raised money, arranged financing, received architectural designs, and began building a new church. The new Union Bethel church, completed in July 1917, was a one-story rectangular, wooden structure with brick veneer, sheltered by a steep gable roof. It stands today at 916 Fifth Avenue South, still with an active A. M. E. congregation. Union Bethel was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003, and is honored by the National Park Service in its website at: http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/feature/afam/2004/unionbethel.htm. Through his charismatic leadership, Rev. Horsey led the black community, and their new Union Bethel became the vibrant center of south side religious, social, and civic life. When the black contingent of soldiers left Great Falls for service in World War I, they were honored at Union Bethel with a patriotic program and banquet. Rev. George and Lily Horsey left an indelible mark on the city. The Horseys were reassigned to a larger church at Boonville, MO and departed Great Falls 13 Jan 1919. [GFLD 27 Jan 1917, p. 6; GFLD 14 Apr 1917, p. 3; GFLD 13 Jan 1919, p. 4; GFLD 9 Jan 1919, p. 3]

Houke, Jim. Jim Houke, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1890. [GFTD 19 Jul 1890, p. 4]

Howard, Mrs. Jennie. Mrs. Jennie Howard, a black woman lived in Great Falls and owned a house on the Southside during the period 1893-1898. She was born in LA 4 Jul 1864, lived in Great Falls and owned a house on the South side during the period 1893-1908. She moved to Cranbrook, Canada after 1908. In Feb 1914, she returned to Great Falls for a visit. On 28 Feb 1914, Jennie died at the Columbus Hospital. Her funeral was held 5 Mar at O’Connor’s Chapel with Rev. David W. Sims of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Jennie was buried in Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 23 Dec 1893, p. 1; GFLD 20 Jun 1898, p. 4; GFLD 20 Jun 1898, p. 4; GFLD 4 Jul 1898, p. 3; GFLD 21 Aug 1908, p. 8; GFLD 28 Feb 1914, p. 10; GFLD 4 Mar 1914, p. 6; CC Cemetery Records]

Howard, Lee. Lee Howard, a black man worked as a barber and lived in Great Falls and Helena in 1900-01. [GFLD 15 Apr 1901, p. 4]

Howard, N. J. N. J. Howard, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1893. [GFLD 10 Jan 1893, p. 5; GFLD 11 Jan 1893, p. 5]

Huddleson, Blanche. See Joseph and Blanche Huddleson White.

Hudson, Clarence H. Clarence H. Hudson, a black man, was a pallbearer at the funeral of William Payne held 6 Sep 1914 with services conducted by the Rev. W. A. Brain in the African Methodist Episcopal church. In 1918 Clarence worked as porter at the Ozark Club and roomed at 1118 Fifth Avenue South. On 12 Sep 1918, Clarence registered for the World War I Draft at Great Falls. He was born 22 Aug 1879. He worked as a porter for W. B. O’Dess at Stockett. His nearest relative was recorded as Marv Hudson at Lacenda, IA. In 1920-23 Clarence Hudson (or Huddson) boarded at 1118 Fifth Avenue South and worked as a porter on the railroad. He was a mixed race black man born about 1880 in KS and was unmarried. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3; 1918, 1923 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; WWI Draft]

Hull, Walker Henry. Walker Henry Hull, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 1 Dec 1883. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway. His nearest relative was Mrs. Georgio Lewis of Montgomery, WV. Earlier in 1918, Walker worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel. [WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Hull, Walter. Walter Hull, a black man lived in Great Falls in 1918 and worked as a porter. [GFTD 3 Nov 1918, Section 1, p. 4]

Hunt, Mr. Mr. Hunt, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Hunter, Cora. Mrs. Cora Hunter, a black woman, lived on Third Street South in Great Falls in 1907. [GFLD 9 Feb 1907, p. 5; GFTD 9 Feb 1907, p. 4]

Hunter, Fred Douglass and Nina. Fred D. Hunter, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was born 20 Jun 1889 at Starvard, VA. He worked as a porter at a Penny Arcade, and lived with his wife at 1111 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. In 1920 Fred lived with his wife Nina at 211 Fifth Street South in Great Falls and worked as a teamster in 1920. Nina Hunter was born in MO about 1887. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade]

Hunter, Minor. Minor Hunter, a 41 year old black man, was a laborer working at the railroad roundhouse and lived in Ward 2 at 410 1/2 Fourth Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1879 in KY. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Hurd, Samuel and Estella. Samuel Hurd, a black man, was a pallbearer at the funeral of William Payne held 6 Sep 1914 with services conducted by the Rev. W. A. Brain in the African Methodist Episcopal church. In 1915 Samuel was a stevedore working for the Great Northern Railroad and living with his wife Estella at 1104 Seventh Avenue South. Mrs. Estella Hurd was a sister of Mrs. Josephine Enoax. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3; 1915 GFCD; GFLD 12 Feb 1916, p. 10]

Hutton, James. James Hutton, a black man, worked as a porter in Great Falls in 1908] [GFTD 10 Jun 1908]
Hutton, Mary. Miss Mary Hutton, a black woman, was a very early resident of Great Falls. In Feb 1888 she sang at Minot’s hall for the black community. Mary Hutton lived in Great Falls in 1904 and served as witness at the marriage of James A. Porter and Martha A. Thompson on 24 Oct 1904. It is not known whether this is the same Mary Hutton. [GFTD 20 Feb 1888, p. 4; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3025]

Ingolman, Mrs. Narsissie Finn. [See Rev. W. W. Ingolman]

Ingolman, Rev. Mr. Woodson W and Narsissie Finn. Woodson W. [or W. W.] Ingolman/Inglmon was a black man living in early Great Falls. He was born in Canada in 1863, son of Hamilton and Harriat Veaney Ingolman. Narsissie Finn was born in KY in 1862, and was previously married. On 21 Aug 1892, Ingolman and Narsissie Finn were married at the bride’s residence by Rev. W. B. Coombe, the Methodist Episcopal minister. During 1893, W. W. Ingolman worked as a barber for Henry Courtney’s barbershop, and the Ingolmans lived at 213 Seventh Avenue South. By 1894 Mr. and Mrs. Ingolman were living in Belt, and later that year they attended the A. M. E. church in Great Falls with their good friend, Mrs. Mattie Castner. The Ingolman continued to live at Belt until at least 1912. [Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1892 No. 434; GFTD 23 Aug 1892; CC 24 Sep 1894]

Ingraham, Reverend. Reverend Ingraham or Ingham/Ingleman served as pastor of the A. M. E. congregation in Great Falls for two different periods, Jul-Aug 1890 and Jul-Aug 1892. In both instances, Rev. Ingraham was removed from his post. In Oct 1890, Rev. Ingraham was named to a Republican committee to greet Col. Wilbur Fisk Sanders on his arrival in Great Falls. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; GFLD 11 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Irvine, Robert and Sarah Johnson. Robert Irvine, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1910. He was born in TX in 1880, the son of Robert and Amnionia Smith Irvin. On 1 Jun 1910 in Great Falls, Robert married Sarah Johnson with Rev. S. J. Collins of the A. M. E. Church officiated. Sarah was born in MO in 1880, the daughter of Lewis and Mary Adams Johnson. Sarah previously had been married and divorced. The couple lived at 702 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls. Robert worked as a porter in a hotel, and Sarah worked as a laundress at home in 1910. Living with them was Mary Johnson, Sarah’s mother. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4425]

Isabell, James. James Isabell/Isbell/Isbelle, a black man worked as janitor at the Cascade County court house in 1892 and as janitor at Security Bank in 1893. [GFLD 25 Mar 1892; 1893 Great Falls GFCD]

Jackson, Andrew. Andrew Jackson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1890. He spoke at the organizational meeting of a black Republican political club at Minot Hall 6 Oct 1890. [GFLD 7 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Jackson, Arthur. Arthur Jackson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 15 Jan 1887, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. His address was recorded at Ingleside, MS. [WWI Draft]

Jackson, Alexander H. and Clara. Clara Jackson, a black woman, lived in a lodging house in Great Falls at 19 1/2 Second Street South in 1911. She was called to testify at a police inquest into the murder of Joseph White by Nick Tirogalas the night of 23 Dec 1911 at the lodging house. On the evening of 26 Dec, Clara married Alexander Jackson in Great Falls. In 1913, Alex and Clara Jackson lived at 316 Fourth Avenue South with two children. [GFTD 24 Dec 1911, p. 3; GFTD 25 Dec 1911, p. 7; GFTD 27 Dec 1911, p. 7; 1913 Great Falls Municipal City Directory]

Jackson, Beatrice. Beatrice Jackson was a mixed race woman born in Florida about 1896. She came to Great Falls by 1917, and in 1919 she lived at 220 Sixth Avenue South and worked as a hairdresser. [1919 Great Falls Polk Directory; GFTD 27 Oct 1917, p. 6; 1920 US Census Cascade County]

Jackson, Belle. Belle Jackson, a black woman, lived in Rosebud alley in the red light district of Great Falls in the early 1900s. [GFLD 26 Jun 1903, p. 8]

Jackson, Clarence. Clarence Jackson, a 10 year old black child, was attending school and living at Ray Walker’s boarding house at 313 1/2 Third Avenue South in Great Fall 1920. He was born about 1910 in MT. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Jackson, George. George Jackson, a 44 year old black man, worked as mail clerk for the railroad and lived in Ward 2 at 307 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1876 in MO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Jackson, Horatius Alex and Ellen A. Miller Jackson. Horatius Alex Jackson was black man living in Great Falls in 1911. He was a porter in the Tex Sandberg’s barbershop. He was born in 1887 in KS, son of A. E. and Ellen A. Hildrith Jackson. Horatius Jackson married Marie C. Miller Jackson of Great Falls 26 Dec 1911. Marie was born in 1891 in IN, daughter of Alfred and Marie Jones Miller. She was previously married to [NFI] Miller and divorced. In 1913 Alex Jackson lived at 511 Fourth Avenue South and worked as a porter at Green & Morton. [CC Marriage Licenses, No 5084; 1913 GFCD GFTD 27 Dec 1911, p. 10]

Jackson, Irene. Irene Jackson, a black woman, lived on Rosebud Alley in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 18 Apr 1901, p. 5; GFLD 20 Apr 1901, p. 5]

Jackson, James. James Jackson, a 44 year old black man and widower, died 20 Mar 1899 of pneumonia at the Columbus Hospital, and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. He had been in Great Falls for just a few months. [CC Cemeteries; GFTD 21 Mar 1899; CC Reg Deaths]

Jackson, Jane. Jane Jackson, an 81 year old black woman, lived at 812 Eighth Street South in Great Falls with her son William M. Jackson in 1920. She was the widow of Watson Jackson. Jane died in Great Falls 24 Feb 1927 age 89. Funeral services were held at O’Connor’s chapel with Rev. G. S. Allen of the A. M. E. Church officiating. She was buried at Highland Cemetery. [1919, 1923 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 28 Feb 1927, p. 2]

Jackson, John J. John J. or J. J. Jackson was a black workingman, colorful orator, and Republican Party activist in Great Falls in the early 1890s. He came to Great Falls in 1889 from Helena, and was the orator of the evening on 27 Sep of that year at a meeting of black Republicans and their white friends. J. J. spoke at a series of meetings of the Republican Colored Club in Oct 1890. In Sep 1892 J. J. was elected a lieutenant of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. In 1893, Jackson was a laborer residing at 113 1/2 First Avenue South. In Jul 1894 Jackson opened a bootblacking stand on First Avenue South. By 1896 he worked as a janitor and mascot for the Black Eagle Hose Company at the Boston & Montana smelter. [GFLD 27 Sep 1889; GFLD 25 Oct 1890, p. 5; GFLD 30 Oct 1890, p. 5; GFTD 31 Oct 1890, p. 2; GFLD 27 Jul 1892, p. 5; GFLD 4 Oct 1892, p. 5; GFLD 19 Dec 1893, p. 4; GFLD 13 Jul 1894, p. 3; GFLD 12 Apr 1897, p. 4; GFLW 16 Jun 1898, p. 7/GFLD 9 Jun 1898, p. 4; GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4]

Jackson, J. R. J. R. Jackson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and participated in a cake-walk contest at the opera house as a fund raiser for the A. M. E. Church. [GFLW 30 Aug 1894, p. 2]

Jackson, Mrs. Lelia Page. Lelia Page was a black woman born about 1886. She was the daughter of Frank and Louise Tolson. Married to William Jackson, Lelia died 7 Sep 1913 at the family home 416 First Avenue South in Great Falls. Her funeral was held at O’Connor’s undertaking parlors and at the A. M. E. Church with services conducted by Rev. David W. Sims. She was buried at Old Highland Cemetery, and survived by her parents, two sisters, two brothers, and one son who reside at Brunswick, MO. [CC Cemeteries, I; GFTD 8 Sep 1913, p. 2; GFTD 9 Sep 1913, p. 7]]

Jackson, Peter. “Sergeant” Peter Jackson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1907-20. Peter was 48 years of age, born in NY about 1859. He came to MT in 1899 and before that served in the U. S. Army. In 1919 Peter worked as janitor at the American Bank and Trust Co. In 1920 Peter Jackson boarded at the home of David and Augusta Pritey at 612 Thirteenth Street South in Ward 3 of Great Falls in 1920. [GFTD 27 Dec 1907, p. 4; GFTD 31 Dec 1907, p. 8; GFTD 3 Jan 1908, p. 6; 1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Jackson, Ralph. Ralph Jackson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 27 Dec 1891 at Pittsburg, PA, and was unmarried. He worked as a freight handler for the Great Northern Railway. His address was recorded at 1221 Carson, Pittsburg, PA. [WWI Draft]

Jackson, Stonewall and Clara. Stonewall Jackson, a 24 year old black man, worked as a janitor and lived at 605 1/2 Ninth Avenue South of Great Falls with his wife Clara and family in 1910. Stonewall was born about 1886 in IN, and married Clara in 1908. Clara was born in IN about 1891. Their two children, twins Eliza and Clarence, were born in MT in 1909. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Jackson, Torey Elmer. Torey Elmer Jackson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 21 Jul 1894 at Vernon, TX, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Jackson, William and Lee. William and Lee Jackson, a black couple, served as witnesses at the marriage of H. J. Porter and Sadie M. Rogan on 15 Oct 1910. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4605]

Jackson, William and Lelia. William Jackson was a black man living in Great Falls in the period 1913-1914. William married Lelia Page, the daughter of Frank and Louise Tolson Page. Lelia died 7 Sep 1913 in Great Falls at age 27 in Great Falls. Her funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church 13 Sep, Rev. D. W. Sims officiating, followed by burial in Old Highland Cemetery. William Jackson served as manager of the Rainbow Club in 1914 and lived at 416 First Avenue South. The couple may be the same as William and Lee Jackson. [CC Cemeteries, I; GFLD 13 Sep 1913, p. 8; 1914, 1915 GFCD]

Jackson, William M. William M. Jackson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft 9 Sep 1918, He was born 6 Oct 1875 in KY, the son of Mrs. Jane Jackson. In Jun 1914 William owned the Rainbow Club and organized and managed a black baseball team to represent the Club. William worked as a barber at the Maple Leaf Club in Great Falls, and resided at 812 Eighth Street South. In 1918-19 William was president of the Maple Leaf Club. In 1920 he worked as a laborer at the railroad yard and lived at 812 Eighth Street South with his mother, Jane Jackson. Jackson owned his home at 812 Eighth Avenue South, which was valued at $1,000 in 1930. This census recorded MO as William’s home state. George Young and Edward Rothchild roomed with him. [GFLD 12 Jun 1914, p. 6; WWI Draft; 1918, 1919, 1923 GFCD; 1920, 1930 Census MT Cascade Co.]

James, Mrs. In Aug 1890, Mrs. Janes or James worked with Mesdames Finn, Courtney, and Saventon and Messrs. Bigbee, Simms, and Ray to serve dinner at Dunn Hall. This is probably Mrs. Nobel James before she deserted him. See also Noble James. [GFTD 15 Aug 1890, p. 4]

James, Noble. Noble (or Nobel) James was a black soldier, born about 1852, who came to Great Falls about 1888 from the Indian Territory. From 1890 Nobel James worked as a porter at the Brunswick saloon at 212 Central Avenue. He lived on Sixth Avenue South between Eleventh and Twelfth Streets. By 1896, James worked as a bartender at the Brunswick and lived at 119 Second Avenue South. The next year on 14 Nov, he succumbed to pneumonia and died at his home on the Southside. The funeral was held 15 Nov at McBratney’s undertaking parlors, and he is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. He was married, but his wife deserted him soon after they came to Great Falls. See also Mrs. James. [CC Reg Deaths; GFTD 16 Nov 1897, p. 4; 1890, 1892, 1893, 1896 GFCD; CC Cemeteries, I]

Jarrett, Arthur C. and Clara C. Arthur C. Jarrett, a black man, served as pallbearer at the funeral of Mrs. John Taylor in Great Falls in Mar 1918. On 12 Sep 1918, Arthur Jarrett registered in Great Falls for the World War I Draft. He was born 29 Mar 1883, and was married to Clara. They resided at 1218 Seventh Avenue South, and Arthur worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel. [GFTD 7 Mar 1918, p. 2; 1918, 1919 GFCD; WWI Draft]

Jefferson, C. Clarence. Clarence C. Jefferson was a black man living in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 1 Dec 1897, p. 4]
Jenkins, Lulu. Lulu Jenkins was a black woman in Great Falls in 1916. [GFLD 21 Jan 1916]

Johns, Joseph. Joseph Johns was a black man who lived at a house on the South end of Second Street. The house was burned and wrecked by a fire starting from a kitchen stove 22 Jul 1891. [GFTD 22 Jul 1891]

Johnson, Alfred A. Alfred A. Johnson was a young black man, born in AZ in 1889, living in Great Falls who committed suicide by poisoning 17 April 1908. He had been employed as a porter in the Mint billiard parlors, and previously for Lapeyre Bros. Alfred was the son of Sergeant Daniel and Maggie Johnson, formerly of the Tenth Cavalry at Fort Assiniboine and now residing in Havre. Services for Alfred were held at the A. M. E. Church, and he was buried in Old Highland Cemetery 19 Apr 1908. [CC Coroner Inquest #303, filed 18 Apr 1908; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 18 Apr 1908, p. 2]

Johnson, Rev. Arthur W. and Mrs. Lena. Reverend Arthur W. Johnson, an A. M. E. minister, formerly pastor of the Kansas City MO A. M. E. Church arrived in Great Falls with his wife in Feb 1919 to take the pulpit of the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. Arthur was born in MO about 1891, and his wife Lena was born about 1894 in MO. The Johnsons lived at the parsonage of the A. M. E. Church at 916 Fifth Avenue South. [GFLD 15 Feb 1919, p. 12; A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Johnson, B. B. Johnson, a 32 year old black man, was lodging in the Cascade County jail in 1910. He was born in IN about 1878. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Johnson, Carrie. Carrie Johnson, a 22 year old unmarried black woman, worked as a domestic servant and lived with the family of Gowan Fergason at 327 Third Avenue North in Great Falls in 1900. She was born Jul 1877 in TX. From 1901-03 she boarded at 1814 Seventh Avenue North. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901, 1903 GFCD]

Johnson, Charles. Charles Johnson was a black man living in Great Falls in 1892. [GFLD 30 Sep 1892, p. 5]

Johnson, Charles. Charles Johnson was a black man living in Great Falls in 1904. In Feb 1904, he and partner Julia Frierson participated in a cake walk on the dance floor of Luther’s Hall. [1904-05 Great Falls GFCD; GFLD 19 Feb 1904, p. 2]

Johnson, Ernest. Ernest Johnson, a young black boy, lived in Great Falls in 1907. [GFLD 21 May 1907, p. 3]

Johnson, Edward. Edward Johnson was a black child in Great Falls in 1907. [GFLD 21 May 1907, p. 3]

Johnson, Grace. Grace Johnson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 1 Jan 1918, p. 8]

Johnson, Harry Christopher and Elnora/Ella. Harry Christopher Johnson, a black man born at Fort Davis, TX 13 Sep 1883, was the son of Sergeant Daniel and Maggie Payne Johnson. In 1903 Harry worked as a porter at 221 Central Ave. In May 1904 Harry was a member of the Masonic order and attended the Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls. Harry married Jennie Robinson of Great Falls on 28 Jul 1904, with Rev. Benjamin McCully of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Jennie was born in 1880 in OH, the daughter of Homer Robinson. In Jun 1908, Harry Johnson played catcher on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. Harry Johnson lived in Great Falls in 1908 at 418 Eighth Avenue South and working as a porter at The Mint. His brothers were Alfred and Theodore Johnson, and his parents Sergeant and Mrs. Johnson lived in Havre. By 1915 Harry was president of the Ozark Club located at 119 Second Avenue South. He apparently was remarried to Elnora (NFI), born in MO about 1892, and they lived at 607 Seventh Avenue South. On 12 Sep 1918, Harry registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls. He worked as a porter for Maurice Hanson at 213 First Avenue South, and lived with at 607 Seventh Avenue South. His wife Maggie was recorded as the closest relative though she did not appear to be in Great Falls. In 1920 the Johnsons lived at 607 Seventh Avenue South with brother Theodore living in the household, and Harry worked as a porter in a pool hall. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; GFLD 18 Apr 1908, p. 2; GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4; 1908, 1915 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 2961; 1903 GFCD; WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Johnson, Henry and Henrietta Essex. Henrietta Essex, a black woman, was born in OH in 1841, the daughter of Bristo and Eliza Essex. In 1878 she came to Fort Benton by steamboat. She lived in Fort Benton with her husband Henry Johnson, and at the opening of the Grand Union Hotel in Nov 1882, she was on the staff as a chambermaid. Henry Johnson was a black man living in Great Falls during the years 1890-92. In 1890 he lived at 218 First Avenue South and worked in a restaurant. In 1892 Ida Golding employed Henry at 223 Second Street South. Henry was born in KY in 1845 and was a laborer in the Fort Benton 1880 census. He lived in Fort Benton from about 1878 to 1888. Henry Johnson died in Great Falls prior to 1899. She is listed in the 1899 GFCD as Henrietta Johnson (widow of Henry) residing at 607 Eighth Avenue South. The date of Henry’s death is unknown. In 1910 Henrietta Johnson lived in Great Falls at 702 Eighth Avenue South in the John A. Taylor household. She had six children with just one living in 1910. Mrs. Johnson died about 11 Jan 1912, and her obituary states that Henrietta Johnson was “one of the first colored women to come into northern Montana and one of the most highly respected of her race that had lived in this section of the state. She was perhaps known to nearly every old settler in the vicinity of Fort Benton and Great Falls.” Henrietta’s funeral was held 14 Jan at the A. M. E. Church with services conducted by the Rev. D. W. Sims. She was survived by a daughter, Lida, Mrs. J. W. Robinson; a granddaughter, Mattie Robinson of Great Falls; and a grandson, William (or Wilford) A. Robinson of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, OH. [1880 Census MT Choteau Co.; 1899, 1903, 1904-05 GFCD; BRW 9 Nov 1882; GFTD 17 Dec 1911; GFLD 1 Oct 1892, p. 5; GFLD 29 Sep 1892, p. 5; GFLD 1 Oct 1892, p. 5; GFTD 1 Oct 1892, p. 5; GFLD 13 Jan 1912, p. 7; GFTD 15 Jan 1912, p. 8; CC Cemetery, I; 1890, 1899 GFCD; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Johnson, Infant Son. An infant son of Mr. and Mrs. [name unknown] Johnson died at age two days and was buried 12 Feb 1907 at Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemeteries, I]

Johnson, Mamie. Mamie Johnson was a black prostitute living in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 13 May 1898, p. 4]

Johnson, Mary. Mary Johnson was a black woman living in Great Falls in 1912. She lived with her daughter and son-in-law, Robert and Sarah Irvine at 702 Eighth Avenue South. She was born in Tennessee about 1850, and died in Great Falls 15 Feb 1912 at age 63. Her funeral was held 18 Feb 1912 at O’Connor’s chapel and the A. M. E. Church with services conducted by the Rev. D. W. Sims. She is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. Mrs. Johnson was survived by a son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Irvine; and a sister, Mrs. Agnes Williams, all of Great Falls. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemeteries, I; GFLD 16 Feb 1912, p. 8]

Johnson, Mollie. Mollie Johnson, a 30 year old black woman, a cook by occupation, came from Butte to Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 14 Aug 1917, p. 8]

Johnson, Richard. Richard Johnson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917 and worked at the Ozark Club. [GFLD 16 Mary 1917, p. 5]

Johnson, Sarah. See Robert and Sarah Johnson Irvine.

Johnson, Theodore Orthelias and Stella Stokes Ford. Theodore Orthelias Johnson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1908 at 517 1/2 Sixth Avenue South and worked as a bartender at the Electric City Club. Theodore was born 22 Seo 1885 either NV or AZ, the son of Sergeant Daniel and Mrs. Maggie Maglin Johnson, Tenth Cavalry Regiment. On 15 Jul 1908, Theodore married Stella Stokes Ford of Great Falls with Rev. E. D. Abbott of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Stella was born about Apr 1889 in TX, the daughter of Harry D. and Mollie Thompson Stokes. Stella previously had been married to _____ Ford and divorced. Theodore later worked as a teamster and trucker for the Great Northern Railroad. Theodore and Stella apparently divorced because on 24 Oct 1914 he took out a marriage license to marry Maggie Stokes Payne, but the license was returned with no marriage recorded. On 12 Aug 1915, Theodore and Stella remarried in Great Falls. This time Theodore’s birthplace was given as Fort Grant OR. On 11 Sep 1918, Theodore registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls at age 33. He was working as a janitor for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. In 1920, he lived at 607 Seventh Avenue South with his brother Harry C. Johnson and sister-in-law Ella. [1908-09, 1910, 1915, 1919 Great Falls Directories; 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade County; CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 3839; CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6556; CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 6971; WWI Draft]

Johnson, Unidentified and Elizabeth. Unidentified black man and his wife Elizabeth Johnson lived in Great Falls in 1915. [GFLD 17 Jul 1915, p. 12]

Johnson, Unidentified and Sarah. Unidentified Johnson, a 31 year old black man, worked as a porter and lived with his wife Sarah 202 Second Street South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Oct 1868 in MO. His wife Sarah [NFI] was born in Oct 1868 in KY. They were married in 1898, had one child who was deceased in 1900. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Johnson, Will. Will Johnson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Mar 1891 at Shreveport, LA, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. His address was recorded as 920 Neal Street, Shreveport, LA. [WWI Draft]

Johnston, Clarence. Clarence Johnston, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 21 Sep 1894 at Yazoo, MS, and was unmarried. He worked as a fireknocker for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. In 1919 Clarence worked as a switchman and roomed at the Hotel James. [WWI Draft; 1919 GFCD]

Joiner, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Joiner. Mrs. C. E. Joiner was an active member of Union Bethel A. M. E. Church in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 1 Dec 1917, p. 2]

Jones, Albert and Anna. Albert and Anna Jones, a black married couple lived in Great Falls in 1910, rooming at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Clarence H. Daley. Albert was born in TN in 1874 or 1876, son of William Jones, and worked in a butcher shop. Anna was born in WV about 1876 and worked as a cook. Albert Jones died in Great Falls 26 Mar 1912 at age 37. His sister, Mrs. M. F. Jones, of Bonners Ferry ID came to make funeral arrangements. The funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church 31 Mar with Rev. D. W. Sims officiating and Masonic pallbearers including William A. Bearpaugh, John W. Robinson, Jesse Smith, and Peter Anderson. Albert was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 28 Mar 1912, p. 8; CC Cemetery Records]

Jones, E. Sergeant Jones, a black man, served with the Tenth U. S. Cavalry at the battle of Las Guaymas in the Spanish-American war. In Aug 1918, he served as drill instructor with the “colored home guard” formed in Great Falls. [GFLD 30 Jul 1918, p. 8]

Jones, Ed. Ed. Jones was a black man living at 410 Seventh Avenue South in 1891-92. He left Great Falls in 1895. [GFLD 9 Nov 1891, p. 5]

Jones, Elzie and LaNita Estelle Knott. Elzie or Elsie Jones, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 9 Sep 1918 at age 35. He was born in TX 20 Oct 1883, the son of Philip and Mary Anderson Jones. He was married and divorced. Elzie worked as a Janitor for the Great Northern Railway, and lived at 305 1/2 Eighth Avenue South. His nearest relative was Charles Jones, a son, living with him. In 1919 Elzie and his wife Mabel resided at 305 1/2 Eighth Avenue South. On 12 Feb 1920 in Great Falls, Elzie married Miss LaNita Estelle Knott of Great Falls, Rev. A. w. Johnson of the A. M. E. Church officiating. LaNita was born in Great Falls in 1902, the daughter of David A. and Katie W. Winston Knott. [WWI Draft; 1919 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 16, No. 9973]

Jones, George. George Jones was a black man living in Great Falls in 1895. [p. 6] [GFTD 3 Oct 1895]

Jones, George E. George E. Jones, a black man, was a pallbearer at the funeral of William Payne held 6 Sep 1914 with services conducted by the Rev. W. A. Brain in the African Methodist Episcopal church. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3]

Jones, Miss Hattie. Miss Hattie Jones was an eight year old black girl living near the water works pumping station in 1891. Her parents have not been identified, though she may be a daughter of Mrs. Hattie Jones. [GFLD 9 Jul 1896, p. 4]
Jones, Mrs. Hattie. Mrs. Hattie Jones was a black woman living in early Great Falls. In 1891 she was living in a shack at Third Avenue South between Second and Third Streets, and did washing for houses in the Red Light district. In Nov 1891, her shack partially burned but a trunk with $1,000 of her savings was undamaged. [GFLD 7 Nov 1891, p. 5]

Jones, Henry and Robin. Henry Jones, a 34 year old black man, worked as a fireman in a brick yard and with his wife Robin rented a home at 914 Fifth Avenue South in 1920. He was born about 1886 in MO. His wife Robin was born about 1890 in MO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Jones, Henry Clay and Rozolphia. Henry Clay Jones, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 3 Sep 1885. He worked as a teamster for the City of Great Falls, and lived with his wife Rozolphia at 914 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Jones, James. James Jones, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 30 May 1891 at Hickory Valley, TN, and was married. He worked as a freight trucker for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Jones, John E. John E. Jones was a black man born in Jul 1849 in NC and living in Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1900 he was unmarried, lived at 217 Fourth Avenue South, and worked as a laborer although not employed in the past four months. In 1901 John lived at the rear of 316 Fourth Avenue South. By 1903 he lived at the rear of 316 Fourth Avenue South in 1903. On 4 Jul 1903 he died at age 53 at the Columbus Hospital after a long illness with dropsy and heart trouble. His funeral was held 5 Jul at McAllister’s undertaking rooms with a short service observed at the A. M. E. Church. He was buried 5 Jul at Old Highland Cemetery. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901; 1903, 1904-05 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; CC Reg Deaths GFTD 5 Jul 1903, p. 12]

Jones, Lawrence. Lawrence, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 26 Jul 1895 at Havre, MT, and was married. He worked as a waiter in the Dining Car Service for the Great Northern Railway and resided at 519 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. Franklin Orme departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Jones, Lizzie. Lizzie Jones was a black woman living in Great Falls during the years 1894-99. In 1896, she was a domestic servant living at 224 Fourth Avenue North. On 25 Mar 1899, Lizzie died on the county Poor Farm. [GFLD 13 Jun 1894, p. 4; CC Reg Deaths]

Jones, Mrs. Martha. Mrs. Martha Jones was a black woman living in Great Falls 1892-96. She was a member of the A. M. E. Church and worked as a cook. In September 1892 Martha was elected trustee of the A. M. E. Church. She resided at 316 Fourth Avenue South. [GFTD 27 Sep 1892; 1896 GFCD; 1894 A. M. E. Church Records]

Jones, Mollie S. McQuenten. See George and Mollie S. McQuenten Jones Thomas.

Jones, Molly. Molly Jones, a black woman, lived on the lower South side in Great Falls in 1902. [GFLD 7 Nov 1902, p. 4]

Jones, Sam. Sam Jones, a well known black man, lived in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 8 Jul 1904, p. 5]

Jones, Samuel and Ethel Mae Page. Samuel Jones, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1915. He was born in TN in 1879, the son of Edward and Caroline Doss Jones. He was married [NFI]. On 19 Jun 1915, Samuel Jones married Ethel Mae Page of Topeka, OK, with Rev. W. H. Prince of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Ethel was born in 1894 in OK, the daughter of Thomas Fletcher and Emma Jane Thomas Page. In 1915 Samuel was working as a bartender and the couple resided at 523 1/2 Sixth Avenue South. Samuel and Ethel Jones may have left Great Falls by 1917. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6896; 1915 GFCD]

Jones, Samuel and Lillian Carmon. Samuel Jones was a pioneer black resident of Great Falls. He was born in TN in 1871, the son of Ed and Killen Jones. Samuel was previously married and divorced, and on 4 Jan 1905 he married Lillie Carmon of Great Falls with Rev. Benjamin McCully officiating. Lillie was born in 1882, the daughter of Andrew and Jennie Carmon. From 1904-07 Jones worked as a bartender at the Electric City Club and in 1908-09 as a porter at the same club and lived at 1216 Sixth Avenue South. He worked as a teamster for the Street Commissioner in 1910. By 1913, Samuel Jones and his wife Lillian lived in the rear of 523 Sixth Avenue South, and he was employed as a porter. In 1915 he roomed at Fifth Alley South between Fifth and Sixth Avenues South. He died in May 1917 and his funeral was held 13 May at O’Conner’s undertaking chapel and officiated by Rev. George Edward Horsey, pastor of the A. M. E. church. He is interred in Highland Cemetery. [1904-05, 1906-07, 1908-09, 1910, 1913, 1914, 1915 Great Falls GFCD; GFLD 12 May 1917, p. 3; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3062]

Jones, Samuel and Mary F. Samuel Jones and Mary F. [NFI] were married at Anaconda 7 August 1901. They moved to Great Falls and lived in a shack on the South side. In September 1902, Mary filed for divorce, which was granted. It is not known whether this is the same Samuel Jones that later married Lillian and worked at the Electric City Club. [GFTD 9 Sep 1902, p. 5]

Jones, Walter. Walter Jones was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. In Feb 1917 he was tried in district court and convicted of the murder of Ira King and sentenced to not less than 25 year nor more than 40 years in the state prison. [FBRPW 31 Jan 1917, p. 3; FBRPW 7 Feb 1917, p. 5]

Jones, William H. William H. Jones was a black man age 32 and born in Washington D. C. living in Great Falls in 1911. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 5]

Jones, Willie. Willie Jones, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 22 Mar 1890 at Florence, AL, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern in Great Falls. His nearest relative was listed as a grandmother, and his address was recorded as 822 East Livinston, Florence, AL. [WWI Draft]

Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Mr. and Mrs. Jones [NFI] were very early black residents of Great Falls, living here in May 1888. [GFTD 16 May 1888, p. 4]

Jorden, Nathaniel. Nathaniel or Nat Jorden or Jordan, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 25 Dec 1886. He worked as a freight trucker for the Great Northern Railway and resided at 119 Second Street South in Great Falls. His nearest relative is recorded as Nancy Jorden of Keysville, VA. [WWI Draft; GFLD 7 Mar 1917, p. 8]

Joyner, Charles and Lizzie. Charles Joyner, a 51 year old black man, worked as a janitor for the railroad and with his wife Lizzie rented a home at 914 1/2 Fifth Avenue South in 1920. He was born about 1869 in MO. His wife Lizzie was born about 1878 in TN. Ellie Brown boarded in the same household. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Kelly, James. James Kelly, a 36 year old black man, lived in Great Falls and worked as a cook in 1917-18. [GFLD 6 Nov 1917, p. 8; GFLD 12 Feb 1918, p. 8]

Kennedy, Frank. Frank Kennedy was a black man living in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 6 Jan 1917, p. 3]

Kilbert, Jame and Lizzie. Jame Kilbert, a 50 year old black man, worked for a contractor and lived with his wife Lizzie in the home of Mrs. Emma Porter at 617 Fourth Avenue South in 1920. Jame was born about 1870 in KS. His wife Lizzie was born about 1877 in MO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Kimball, Mrs. F. H. Mrs. F. H. Kimball, a black woman, died 4 Jun 1904 at the home of Mrs. J. W. Robinson at 1111 Sixth Avenue South of heart failure. She was a 63 year old widow and a resident of Cascade. Her funeral was held 8 Jun at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls, Rev. McCully officiating followed by burial in Highland Cemetery. She was survived by son, George Hagan of Spokane, and a sister in FL. [GFLD 6 Jun 1904, p. 5; CC Reg Deaths; CC Cemetery Records]

King, Felix. Felix King, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 10 Apr 1898. He worked as a freight handler for the Great Northern Railway and resided 411 Sixth Street South in Great Falls. His nearest relative was recorded as James King of 2809 Ohio Street, Omaha, NE. [WWI Draft]

King, Henry. Henry King, a 37 year old unmarried black man, lived at 217 1/2 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born Jan 1863 in TX and worked as a porter. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

King, Ira A. Ira A. King was a black man living in Great Falls and on a ranch near Portage in 1916. The son of Mrs. Georgia Crockett, Ira was probably born in Missouri. His mother came from Missouri to live with her son about 1912. On 30 Nov 1916, Ira King was shot in the head and killed at age 30. He is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. His killer, Walter Jones, was convicted in district court of second degree murder and sentenced to not less than 25 years nor more than 40 years in state prison. [CC Cemeteries, I; FBRPW 7 Feb 1917, p. 5]

King, Mr. Mr. King, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Kirby, W. M. and Ada Frances Ferguson White. W. M. Kirby, a black man, married Ada Frances Ferguson White after her divorce from Henry White. The Kirbys had one daughter Katherine, born 14 Feb 1923. The Kirbys were living at 307 Fifth Street South in 1923. Mrs. Frances Kirby died 9 Nov 1926 in Great Falls at the age of 32 and was buried in Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Kirk, Carrie. Carrie Kirk, a 42 year old black woman, lived with her mother at 211 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. Carrie was born about 1868 in KY. [1910 Census Cascade Co.]

Kirk, Georgina. Georgina Kirk, a 67 year old black woman, lived with her daughter at 211 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. Georgina was born about 1843 in KY. [1910 Census Cascade Co.]

Kirkendall, Ashley and Annie Toohy. Ashley and Annie Kirkendall were a black couple living in Great Falls during the 1890s. They were married at Great Falls on 19 May 1891 and became prominent members of black society. Ashley was born in AR in 1854, son of Mack Kirkendall. Annie was born in KY in 1865, daughter of John and Harriet Duke Jones. This was the second marriage for Annie, who had been married to Mr. Tuohey/ Toohy in Fort Benton in the 1880s where they had a son, John, born about 1886. In 1893 Ashley Kirkendall was working as a laborer, and the family lived at 610 Eighth Avenue South. Five years later, on 15 Feb 1896, Annie filed for divorce. In 1898 Annie was listed as guardian for her son John who attended public schools. [Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1891; GFLW 30 Aug 1894, p. 2; Cascade Co. 1898 School District #1 Census; GFLD 4 1898, p. 4]

Kirkendall, Johnny. Johnny Kirdensall, an 11 year old mixed race boy, was sent to reform school for stealing at the Ulm House. Born in Fort Benton about 1886, Johnny was the son of Annie Tuohey. [GFTD 29 Jun 1897, p. 4]

Kirkendall, Mark. Mark Kirkendall (or Kirkendoll), a 63 year old black man, rented a house at 711 Eleventh Street South in Great Falls and worked as a laborer in 1920. John was born in AR about 1857. Earlier, in 1910, Mark lived near Tiger Butte and worked a homestead claim. [1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade]

Kirkins, Bob. Bob Kirkins, a 38 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 20 Sep 1917, p. 3]

Knott, David A. and Katie Winston. Mr. and Mrs. David A. Knott were pillars in the black community in Great Falls. David A. Knott was born in Ohio about 1864. Katie Winston was born in LaGrange, TN 1 Mar 1861, the daughter of Cornelia Winston. They married in Memphis, Tennessee in 1885, and had two children, Odessa A. and David E., born in Tennessee. The family moved to Great Falls in 1892, and they had four more children born in Montana. In 1900 David and Katie lived at 711 Eighth Avenue South with five children: Odessa A. born Aug 1888 in TN; David E. born Mar 1890 in TN; Cecelia or Cecile C. born Dec 1892 in MT; Henry D. born Mar 1896 in MT; and Irene B. born Apr 1899 in MT. Also, in the household were Cornelia Winston, mother in law, and Catherine Grimes, lodger. David worked as a janitor and for 35 years was employed by the power company. Katie was a leading member of the A. M. E. church in Great Falls. Both David and Katie were pillars in the black community in Great Falls. In Jun 1908, Dave Knott served as a substitute player on the black baseball team in Great Falls, the Mohawks. In 1910, they lived with their six children at 711 Eighth Avenue South, in a house that David built and owned. In 1941, when the black community honored Katie on her eightieth birthday, six of their children were living: Mrs. Cecile C. Tucker, William D. Knott and Mrs. Irene B. Marshall, all of Great Falls; David E. Knott, Klamath Falls, OR; Mrs. LaNita E. Minor, Oakland, CA; and Odessa A Richey. David died in Great Falls about 21 Oct 1929, and is buried at Highland Cemetery. Katie Knott lived on for many more years, working tirelessly for the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church, in civic affairs, and for the black community. Katie Knott died 18 Jun 1961 at age 99, with six of her children still living together with five grandchildren and thirteen great-grandchildren. In 1961 the children were William D. and Mrs. Cecile Tucker, Great Falls; David, Jr., Minneapolis; Mrs. Odessa Mash, Spokane; Mrs. LaNita Thompson, Oakland, CA; Mrs. Irene Winburn, Minneapolis, MN. Katie Knott is buried in Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 21 Oct 1929, p. 10; GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4; 1900, 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFTD 2 Mar 1941, p. 8; GFTD 19 Jun 1961; CC Cemetery Records]

Knott, David E. David E. Knott, a son of David A. and Katie Knott, was born in TN in 1889. By 1919 David was married to Fannie (NFI), living at 608 Third St. South and working as a barber. In 1930, he was in the household of his mother Katie Knott living at 711 Eighth Avenue South and working as a barber. He lived in Great Falls until at least 1941. [1900, 1910, 1930 Census MT Cascade County; 1919 Great Falls Directory; GFTD 19 Jun 1961]
Knott, Irene B. See Irene B. Marshall.

Knott, Odessa A. See David A. and Katie Windstone and Cornelius V. and Odessa A. Richey.

Knott, William DeWitt. William DeWitt Knott, son of David A. and Katie Knott, was born in Great Falls in 7 Mar 1896 and attended Great Falls public schools. William registered with the World War I Draft in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was unmarried, working as a janitor for his father, David Knott, and residing at the family home at 711 Eighth Avenue South. William Knott departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. After his service in the U.S. Army, he returned to Great Falls and was a charter member of the World War I Veterans, Barracks 284. William never married, and he worked as a tailor for N. T. Granberry in the early 1920s and then at Ludwig Garage in the late 1920s. In the 1930s he worked for the city street department. Later, he worked at state liquor stores first on Central Avenue and then on the West side for fourteen years until his retirement. He suffered a long illness and died at age 83 years on 11 Sep 1979 in Great Falls. William is buried at Highland Cemetery, Line A West Veteran’s plot. [WWI Draft; GFTD 19 Jun 1961; GFTD 12 Sep 1979, p. 5; CC Cemetery Records; 1927-28, 1935, 1937 GFCD; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Knowles, Harry. Harry Knowles, a 30 year old black man, worked in Great Falls as a carpet layer in 1902. [GFTD 6 Mar 1902, p. 8]

Kring, John J. John J. Kring, a 30 year old black man, worked as a stable man and lived in the household of Clarence Stephens, a dentist, who lived at 915 Fourth Avenue North in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Feb 1870 in KY. [1900 Census MT MT Cascade Co.]

La Fancette, Don. Don La Fancette, a black man, worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railroad and lived in Great Falls in 1915. [GFLD 16 Jul 1915, p. 8]

LaMar, Leo Phillip and Garneil Leota Winburn. Leo LaMar (or on occasion Le Mars, Lamar, Lamars), a remarkable black man, was born in Chicago 5 Jun 1902, the son of Leo and Dora Walk La Mars. He came to Great Falls about 1916 and over the next decade earned the name “Kid Leo” for his boxing skills while working for the Great Northern Railroad as a dining car waiter. Leo La Mar of Great Falls married Garneil Leota Winburn in Great Falls on 23 Oct 1923, when Garneil was just 16 years of age. Garneil L. Winburn was born in Great Falls 5 May 1908, the daughter of Roy and Molly Simms Winburn. In 1927, Leo LaMar and his first wife, Garneil L. lived at 519 Sixth Avenue South. They had two sons, Clev A. born 1925 and Leo Phillip Jr. born 1927, and three daughters, Cleo born 26 Oct 1927, (Mrs. Edward Sanders); Mollie (Mrs. Charles Murray); and Bernice (Mrs. William Jones). Clev A. died in childhood. Garneil died 4 Aug 1936 in Great Falls. Her funeral was held at the Union Bethel A. M. E. Church with services by Rev. Mr. Smith, and she is buried at Highland Cemetery. Leo and Garneil were divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses, No. 11749; 1923, 1927-28 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; 1920, 1930 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFTD 6 Aug 1936, p. 2]

LaMar, Leo Phillip and Beatrice. Leo remarried Beatrice Charlene Jeffers about 1937 in Butte. In 1933 Leo LaMar opened the Ozark Club, and after moving twice, in 1935 located at 116-118 Third Street South. Over the next thirty years, the Club became the jazz music capital of Montana. Initially catering to a black clientele, during World War II the nightclub broadened its base to attract a multiracial crowd. After living at the South Side, in has later years Leo LaMar lived at 4600 Seventh Avenue South, was an avid golfer and served as president of the Great Falls chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He died 20 Jun 1962 of a heart attack. Funeral services were held at T. F. O’Connor Co. followed by Requiem Mass at Our Lady of Lourdes Church. His body was shipped to Knoxville, IA for burial. Leo LaMar was survived by his wife; daughters, all of Los Angeles; mother, Mrs. Dora LaMar of Chicago; five grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. [GFLD 20 Jun 1962, p. 2; GFTD 21 Jun 1962, p. 11; GFTD 23 Jun 1962; Winter 1962, Modern Montana]

Landers, John. John Landers, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1908 and worked as a “secretary” on the lower South side. [GFTD 29 Aug 1908, p. 8]

Lavelle, Richard. Richard or Dick Lavelle was a black man born about 1855, probably in KY. He worked as a porter in barbershops and other places in Great Falls since about 1889. Lavelle died 11 Feb 1900 of Bright’s disease. He was unmarried and had no relatives in the area, and his relatives in KY could not be located. Services were held at McAllister’s undertaking rooms 13 Feb followed by burial at Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 13 Feb 1900, p. 3; CC Reg Deaths]

Lawless, Edward. Edward Lawless, a 38 year old black man, who worked as a porter and lived on Third Street South in Great Falls during the period 1899-1900. He was born in Missouri in Aug 1861, and was a widower. In Nov 1899 Lawless was assaulted by Robert Cunningham in the black club, the Limekiln Club. [GFLD 9 Nov 1899, p. 4; GFLD 10 Nov 1899, p. 3; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Laws, Charles H. Charles H. Laws or Law was a black man living in Great Falls from about 1893 to 1898. In Oct 1898, he witnessed the wedding of Charles Alexander to Edythenzo Thompson in Great Falls. [GFLD 11 Jan 1893, p. 5; GFLD 10 Jan 1893, p. 5; GFLD 9 Nov 1898, p. 3]

Lawson, Charles and Josephine. Charles Lawson was an early leader in the black community in Great Falls. Prior to coming to Great Falls, in 1888 Lawson operated a barbershop and a saloon in Sun River. On 24 Dec 1888, Charles Lawson gave a Christmas Ball to the black residents of Sun River and vicinity. The ball and supper were held in the Ellis building, and the limited number able to attend greatly enjoyed the evening. The following year he came to Great Falls, operated a barbershop at 117 Central Avenue and resided at 815 Seventh Avenue South. In 1891, Charles Lawson paid $2 poll tax registering to vote and contributed to the A. M. E. Church subscription fund to build the new church. He was also married in 1891 on 1 Sep to Josephine Edrington in Butte. The Lawsons were active socially and in the A. M. E. Church during the early 1890s. Charles was active in politics among the black community, normally Republican but in 1892 supported the Democrat ticket in Cascade County. He filed 3 Nov 1891 for 80 acres T20N R5E and later filed 10 Apr 1897 for 160 acres T20N R5E 20, and he received patents for both claims. In 1894, a son Otis J. was born and 31 Jan 1897, a son Milton was born. Milton died at age five months and was buried 3 Oct 1897 in Old Highland Cemetery. By 1896, Josephine Lawson operated a saloon on the South side. In Dec 1897, Josephine moved to Lewistown and Charles later filed for divorce. In 1898 Charles Lawson married Jennie (NFI), age 19 and born in OH. He rented his barbershop in Great Falls to George Anderson and joined Manuel Reed in a barbershop in Belt. Within a year, Lawson was back in Great Falls operating his shop at 15 Third Street South and boarding at 411 Second Avenue South. In the 1900 census, Charles Lawson was living at 1011 Fifth Avenue South with his second wife Jennie with two children, son Clarence born May 1898 and Marion born Feb 1900. The Lawsons apparently left Great Falls in the early 1900 for parts unknown. [SRRS 19 Dec 1888, p. 2; SRRS 26 Dec 1888, p. 2; GFLD 8 Dec 1889; GFLD 22 Oct 1890, p. 5; CC Poll Tax Book 1891; GFTD 9 Jun 1891; CC Land Patents; GFTD 27 Feb 1895; GFLD 16 Nov 1895, p. 4; GFLD 16 Jan 1896, p. 4; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 31 Jan 1897, p. 3; GFLD 11 Sep 1897, p. 2; GFTD 28 Feb 1899, p. 4; GFLD 14 Mar 1898, p. 3; GFLD 5 Apr 1898, p. 3; GFLD 27 Feb 1899, p. 4; 1890, 1892, 1893, 1896, 1899 Great Falls Directory; GFLD 14 Feb 1899, p. 2; District Court Cascade County Case No. 3248; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Lawson, Corbett. Corbett Lawson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 1 Jan 1891 at Lexington, MO, and was married. He worked as a laborer at the freight house for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Boarding Camp in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Lawson, Mrs. Josephine Edrington. [See Charles Lawson]

Lawson, Mrs. Jennie. [See Charles Lawson]

Lawson, Milton. Milton Lawson, a young black man and brother of Charles Lawson, witnessed the marriage of John Murdick and Odia Burton in Great Falls on 8 Jan 1889. He died suddenly 26 Oct 1889 in Great Falls. His funeral was held at Charles Lawson’s residence on Third Street between Second and Third Avenue South on 27 Oct. [GFLD 27 Oct 1889; Cascade Co. Marriage Register 1889]

Lawson, Otis. Otis Lawson, a black man, was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Lawson, Otis J. [See Charles Lawson] Otis, son of Charles and Josephine Lawson, was born in 1894 and named in honor of General Otis, commanding U. S. troops in the Philippines. When his parents were divorced, his father was granted custody. [GFTD 28 Mar 1899, p. 5]

Leach, Merrill Sneed. Merrill Sneed Leach, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Jun 1895 and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer at the freight house for the Great Northern in Great Falls. His home address was recorded as 153 Shandanville, Pittsburg, PA. [WWI Draft]

Lee, Edward Warren and Martha Withers. Edward W. Lee of MN, a black man, and his wife Martha Whiters Lee of CO, lived at 607 Ninth Avenue South in Great Falls. On 10 Jun 1914, Martha gave birth to a baby boy, Edward Warren Lee, Jr. They had one child. [CC Reg Births]

Lee, Robert. Bob Lee was a black blacksmith working in 1901 for George H. Smith at 113 Fourth Street South. [GFLD 14 May 1901, p. 5; 1901 Great Falls Directory]

Leffy, Frank. Frank Leffy was a black man living in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 1 Dec 1898, p. 4]

Lettie, Mrs. Rose. Rose Lettie was a black woman, born in May 1850 in MO, living in Great Falls during 1900. She was a widow, married for 15 years with two children, Mary born Mar 1884 in MO and James born Apr 1886 in MO. Mrs. Lettie worked as a laundress and lived at 312 Third Street South. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Lewis, Earnest Gurley. Earnest Gurley Lewis, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 11 Sep 1918 at age 44. He was born 13 Mar 1874. He lived at 119 Second Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a laborer for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. His nearest relative was recorded as Squire Lewis of 115 Coldview, Rockfield, MO. [WWI Draft]

Lewis, May. May Lewis was a black woman living on Tenth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 7 Sep 1917, p. 6]

Lewis, Stella. See Alice Smith.

Lightner, Edward and Maggie Lindsay Berry. Edward Lightner was a black man living in Great Falls in 1907-08. He was born in AL in 1881, son of Ralph Lightner and Josephine Goodin. On 4 Nov 1907, Edward Lightner married Maggie Lindsay Berry of Great Falls. She was born in 1887 in MN, daughter of John and Nellie Lindsay of Great Falls. She was earlier married to William H. Berry and widowed earlier in 1907. In 1914 after several week of illness, Maggie died at the home of her parents at 1009 Eighth Avenue South during the evening of 4 Jun. Her funeral service was conducted by Rev. D. W. Sims of the A. M. E. Church 8 Jun, and she was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [GFTD 4 Jun 1908; CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 3701; CC Cemeteries, 1; GFLD 5 Jun 1914, p. 8; GFLD 8 Jun 1914, p. 2]

Lillian, Steward. Stewart Lillian, a 38 year old divorced black woman, lived in Ward 2 at 302 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920 and worked as a barber from her home. She was born about 1882 in KY. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Lindsay, Anna. See Fred A. and Anna Lindsay Hill.

Lindsay, James and Nellie McKenzie. James Lindsey or Lindsay, was a black man born in VA in 1852, a slave owned by two sisters before being freed by the Emancipation Proclamation at age 11. He enlisted in the Army and served in the Dakotas and Fort Assiniboine. He met and married Nellie McKenzie in Octavia, NY, about 1884. After his discharge at Fort Assiniboine, the couple came to Great Falls in the 1890s. His family was comprised of his wife Nellie born 1858 in NY and the following children: Lulu born MN 1886; Maggie born MN 1888; William born MT 1896; Pearl born MT 1897; and Edna born MT 1898. In 1896 James Lindsay worked as a hod carrier, and the family lived at Third Street between Fourth and Fifth Avenue South. All five children were in the 1899 Great Falls school census. By 1900 the family had moved to 514 Sixth Avenue South. Daughter Anna was born in 1900. A seventh child was born in Sep 1902 and died six week later and was buried 6 Nov 1902 at Old Highland Cemetery. Daughter Lulu Cock was in the Lindsay household in the 1910 census with her husband William Cock, who was born in MO. Lulu and William were married in 1907. James Lindsey operated a stable on Eighth Avenue South between Eleventh and Twelfth Streets. In 1913 John and Nellie lived at 1009 Eighth Avenue South, and Maggie lived at the rear of 209 Seventh Avenue South; William was a bootblack working for Ed Simms and boarded between Tenth and Eleventh Streets on Eighth Avenue South. John worked as a janitor during this period. In 1920 James and Nellie Lindsay rented a house at 1009 Eighth Avenue South, and James worked as a laborer. Their son Will, age 19 and born in MT, lived in their household and worked as a porter in a barber shop. James Lindsay died before 1927. Nellie Lindsey had a restaurant at the family home at Ninth Avenue South and Ninth Street, and when Jack Dempsey trained at Great Falls for his heavyweight championship fight in Shelby in 1923, Dempsey ate at Nellie’s restaurant. Dempsey gave the two older sisters each a silver dollar. Nellie lived on until 1941. [1896-97, 1899, 1900, 1906-07, 1913, 1919 GFCD; 1900, 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1899 GFSC; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 30 Jul 1909, p. 8; GFTD 18 Feb 1982, p. 5A]

Lindsay, John. See Mr. and Mrs. James and Nellie Lindsey/Lindsay.

Lindsay, Maggie/Margaret. See Mr. and Mrs. James and Nellie Lindsey/Lindsay.

Lindsey, R. E. R. E. Lindsey, a black man, was arrested in Great Falls in Dec 1909 for assaulting Jessie Boyd. He pleaded guilty and sentenced to 12 days in jail. [GFTD 28 Dec 1909, p. 7]

Lindsay, William. See also James and Nellie Lindsay. William Lindsay, a young black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 7 Jun 1917. He was born in Great Falls in 1893 (Draft) or 1896 (Census). He worked as a self-employed bootblack, and recorded unnamed parents as nearest relatives. In 1920 he lived with his parents, James and Nellie, Lindsay at 1009 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a porter in a barbershop. William was born in MT in 1896 or 1893. In 1923, William still lived with his parents, and he worked as a porter at Joseph Mann’s barbershop in the Conrad Bank building. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade; 1923 GFCD]

Little, John E. John E. Little was one of the earliest black residents of Great Falls. In Mar 1888 he was working as janitor at the courthouse. In Oct 1889, John was the only black to actively campaign for the Democrat candidate for mayor. In 1890 Little was a barber working at the Park Hotel Barber Shop. In 1892 John Little was nominated by the Democrat Party as a candidate for Great Falls Township Constable. In the constable race, the Great Falls Tribune endorsed both Democrat candidates, Little and J. J. Martin, for the two open constable positions. Although Republican candidates defeated both of them, this marks the first known nomination of a black American to public office in Montana. By 1896 John Little made final proof in support of his homestead entry on land in section 22, township 20 north, range 3 east. John Little appears to have lost this land to Annie Harvey in a Court case in 1898. [GFTD 13 Mar 1888, p. 1; GFTD 25 Oct 1889, p. 4; 1890 GFCD; CC Poll Tax Book 1891; GFTD 5 Nov 1892; GFTD 6 Nov 1892; GFLD 5 Jun 1896, p. 4; GFLD 31 Mar 1898, p. 3; 8th Judicial District Court #2936, filed 4 Apr 1898]

Locker, George. George Locker, a young black man, worked as a laborer in Great Falls in 1904 and lived there for about 12 years. He was born in MN about 1886. On 21 Dec 1904, George died in Great Falls from pneumonia. [CC Reg Deaths]
Lockhart, Ella. Ella Lockhart, aka Mrs. Ella Lockwood and Ella Summers, was a black widow living at 515 Sixth Avenue South and working as a domestic at 108 Tenth Alley South in 1915. The next year she roomed at 616 Ninth Avenue South. In 1917 she lived at 616 Third Street South and worked as a chambermaid at the Daly Hotel. She had a son, Frank Lockhart, age eight in 1917. On 2 Dec 1917, Ella committed suicide by swallowing several bichloride of mercury tablets at her home at 616 Third Street South. [1915, 1916 GFCD; GFLD 24 Nov 1917, p. 8; GFLD 3 Dec 1917, p. 5; GFLD 7 Dec 1917, p. 6]

Lockhart, Frank. See his mother Ella Lockhart.

Long, Brett Wyatt. Brett W. Long, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 11 Sep 1918. He was born 15 Nov 1875 and recorded Mr. Hart Long of Atlanta, GA as his nearest relative. Brett lived at 122 Third Street South in Great Falls and worked as a machinist helper for the Great Northern Railroad on the west side of Great Falls. In 1920 Brett worked as a laborer at the railroad yard and boarded at 812 Eighth Street South in the household of Jane Jackson. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Loss, Charles. Charles Loss was a black man living in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLD 13 Jun 1894, p. 4]

Lovings, William. William or Will Lovings, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 1 Apr 1892 at Gilmer, TX, and was unmarried. He worked as dining car waiter for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. William departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Lowery, Clifton. Clifton Lowery, a 33 year old black man, lived in Great Falls and worked for the Great Northern in 1918. In Feb 1918, Clifton was shot in the left leg by Aaron Williams as a result of an argument in the cinder pits near the Great Northern round house. Clifton registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 5 Jan 1885. He worked as mail clerk at the Great Northern Railway and resided 119 Second Avenue South in Great Falls. Ray H. Walker was recorded as his nearest relative at the same address. [WWI Draft; GFLD 13 Feb 1918, p. 3]]

Lucas, Lemuel L and Katy B. Lemuel L. Lucas was a black man who was born 24 Dec 1866 to Benjamin and Salista Lucas in Chillicothe, Ross County, OH. He went to school at Culpepper, Brown County, OH through the seventh grade, and then worked on farms and as porter until 1892. With several friends, Lemuel enlisted in the Army and was assigned to Fort Assiniboine. He served in the Tenth Cavalry under Captains Bigelow and Ayres. Lucas played guitar and sang, often entertaining officers’ social functions. After discharge from the Army, Lucas worked in Havre as porter in the Windsor and Merchant Hotels. He moved on to Fort Benton and worked as porter in the Grand Union hotel. He later took over management of the Overland Hotel. By 1899 Lemuel Lucas came to Great Falls to work in the dental office of Dr. C. E. Stephens. He then worked at the Bon Ton cafe on Central Avenue and at the Bijou theatre for Mr. Morris. On 19 Oct 1909 in Great Falls, Lem Lucas, a widower, married Katy B. Miller of St. Joseph, MO. In his license, his parents are stated as Benjamin and Lucinda Becker Lucas. Katy Miller was born in MO in 1867, the daughter of Henry and Mary Jordan Miller. Katy previously had been married and divorced. In 1912 he was hired by the Great Northern Railway freight office and continued working for the railroad until 1943. He made his home with Mrs. Fanny Ferguson and her daughter, Laura. In 1922 when Mrs. Ferguson lay dying she asked Mr. Lucas to take care of Laura whose husband had died leaving her with a daughter, Frances. The daughter married twice, first to Henry White and then to William Kirby and two children were born - George White and Kathryn Kirby. Mrs. Kirby died in 1926 and her two children were left for their grandmother and Mr. Lucas to bring up. After the death of Laura Ferguson in 1944, Lemuel Lewis stayed on at the family home at 1214 Seventh Avenue South. He passed away 12 Sep 1956 at Butte at age 89, and is buried at Highland Cemetery in Great Falls. [GF Yesterday pp. 367-68; CC Cemetery; GFLD 13 Sep 1956, p. 2; 1899, 1913, 1923, 1926, 1935, 1944, 1955, 1956 Great Falls Directories; CC Marriage Licenses Book 6, No. 4198]

Lynch, J. H. J. H. Lynch, a black man, lived in Great Falls and in fall of 1892 became editor of the first black newspaper to be published in the state of Montana. This newspaper, The Advocate, was funded by Cascade County Democrats during the 1892 election campaign in Great Falls, in attempt to sway black voters away from the Republican party. J. R. Henderson was corresponding editor of The Advocate. Lynch and Henderson were brought to Great Falls from the Midwest to publish the newspaper and apparently departed after the November election. [GFTD 10 Sep 1892; GFTD 17 Sep 1892; GFTD 21 Sep 1892; GFTD 27 Sep 1892]

Malone, Bernard. Bernard Malone (William Spencer) a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916. He apparently was married in Butte in 1915 to Juanita Douglass (aka “Babe” Morgan), who also lived in Great Falls. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Manley/Manly, Daniel. Daniel Manley or Manly was a well-known black man living in Great Falls during the 1890s. In 1896 Manley worked at the Salvation Army and resided at the Park Hotel. He also worked at the Park Hotel as a bootblack and was affectionately known as ‘Uncle’ to all the traveling men who visited the city. Two years later, failing health and rheumatism ended his life, and he died 25 Jan 1898 at age 70 at his home near Taylor’s boathouse in Great Falls. His funeral was conducted first at the Salvation Army Barracks, and then at the cemetery where grave side services were conducted by Capt. McFee, officer in charge of the local Salvation Army corps. He was buried 26 Jan 1898 in Old Highland Cemetery. Although little is known of his background, Daniel Manley served on a Union ship during the Civil War. He lived in Helena for many years and in the 18602 conducted the notorious Bucket of Blood Saloon before coming to Great Falls. He joined the Salvation Army at its organization in Great Falls in 1893 and was its most respected soldiers of the army in Great Falls. [CC Cemeteries, I; 1896-97 GFCD; GFLD 26 Jan 1898, p. 4; GFTD 26 Jan 1898, p. 8; GFTD 27 Jan 1898, p. 8]

Mannard, Christopher. Christopher Mannard was a black man buried in Old Highland Cemetery 22 Sep 1906. His obituary indicates that he was about age 48 and was a sheepherder in the employ of sheepmen Reeder & Gillett of Cascade for a number of years. Mannard was brought to the Deaconess hospital in Great Falls suffering from apoplexy and died there 21 Sep. This is probably the same black man as Christopher Mannar in the Lewis and Clark 1880 census living in Helena and working as a laborer. [1880 Census MT Lewis & Clark Co.; CC Cemeteries, I; GFTD 22 Sep 1906, p. 4; GFTD 23 Sep 1906, p. 6]

Marcus, Louis and Edith. Louis Marcus, a 27 year old black man, lived at 812 Ninth Street South with his wife Edith in 1920. Louis was born about 1893 in MO and worked as a porter at John L. Green’s barbershop at 106 Central Avenue. Edith was born about 1896 in MO. In 1923 Louis and Edith worked as a porter at E. C. Longenecker’s barbershop and lived at 116 1/2 First Avenue South. [1919, 1923 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Marks, Lulu. Lulu Marks was a black woman living on the lower South side in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 6 Dec 1897, p. 4; GFTD 29 Dec 1897, p. 4]

Marsaurs, Anna B. Anna B. Marsaurs was a black woman and member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church living in Great Falls in 1894. [1894 AME Minutes]

Martin, Frank. Frank Martin, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 10 Dec 1890 at Boonville, MO. He worked as a stevedore for the Great Northern Railway and resided 914 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls. Frank was married although his wife is unnamed. The 1919 GFCD has Frank K. and Sophia Martin residing at 425 1/2 Fourth Avenue South with Frank working as painter. [WWI Draft; 1919 GFCD]

Marshall, Robert and Irene B. Knott Irene B. Knott married Robert Marshall in Great Falls. Irene, the daughter of David and Katie Knott, was born in Great Falls in Apr 1899, seven years after her parents settled in Great Falls. Irene attended Great Falls schools. After spending 25 years in Minneapolis, she moved to Detroit. Robert played football at the University of Minnesota, and was elected to the university Hall of Fame. Robert and Irene had three children. Irene passed away 30 May 1979 in Detroit. She rests in Highland Cemetery. Irene was survived by a daughter, Betty Sessions of Detroit; sons, Robert and Donald of San Fransisco; eight grandchildren; and a brother, William Knott of Great Falls. See parents, David and Katie Knott. [GFTD 19 Jun 1961; 1900, 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFTD 8 Jun 1979, p. 7]

Marshall, Will. Will Marshall, a black man, worked as a porter in Great Falls in 1919. [GFLD 27 May 1919, p. 6]

Martena, Jane. Aka Katie Williams/Jane Benenue/”Lady Jane.” Jane Martena (aka Katie Williams, Jane Benenue, “Lady Jane”), a black woman, worked as a prostitute in Great Falls in the early 1900s. She lived in Great Falls in 1903, and was frequently in trouble with the law. [GFLD 29 Jun 1903, p. 5]

Martin, Lizzie. Lizzie Martin, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1903 and worked as a chambermaid. She lived at 208 1/2 First Avenue South. [1903 GFCD; GFLD 22 Jun 1903, p. 2]

Martin, Louis M. and Elnora Levell. Louis M. (or N.) Martin, a black man, lived with his family at 709 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1919-20. He was born in 1870 in TN and worked for the city of Great Falls as a laborer. His wife Elnora (or Lenore) was born in KS in 1890. Their three daughters were: Lillian born in 1909 in OK; Orethea born in 1911 in Canada; Ida M. born in 1913 in Canada. In 1920 the three girls were in school Their two young sons were: Jason born 1914 in Canada; and Louis Jr. born in 1916 in WA. On 5 Mar 1920, Elnora gave birth to a daughter. The Martins lived at 709 Eighth Avenue South at that time. [1915, 1919, 1923 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Reg Births]

Martin, Mabel. Mabel Martin, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1904 and served as witness at the marriage of James A. Porter and Martha A. Thompson. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3025]

Marymacher, Mary. Mary Marymacher, a mixed race woman, lived in Helena and Great Falls in 1892 and was involved with James Burdock. [GFLD 13 Feb 1892, p. 5]

Mash, Odessa A. Knott Richey. See Cornelius V. and Odessa A. Knott Richey.

Mason, Bertha. Bertha Mason was a young black woman living in the household of Edward Simms at 519 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900-03. Bertha was born in Apr 1885 in AR and a niece of Ed Simms. In 1903 she was a student. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901, 1903 GFCD]

Mason, Charles Henry and Louise. Charles Henry Mason, a mixed race black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was born 19 Jun 1886 and lived at 303 Third Street South in Great Falls and worked as a clerk for the Great Northern Railway. His nearest relative was recorded as Mary Colwell of Chicago, IL. In 1920 Charles Mason worked as a porter in a drug store and lived with his family at 303 Third Street South in Ward 2 in Great Falls in 1920. His wife, Louise, a 38 year old black woman, was born about 1882 in IL. Their son Clarence, born about 1902 in IL, worked as a porter in a dining car. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

May, William. William May, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1904 and served as a witness at the marriage of Theodore Carman and Miss Stella Ford. [GFLD 17 Mar 1904, p. 8]

McCoy, James. James McCoy, an unmarried 53 year old black man, rented a house at 605 1/2 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls and worked as a cook in 1920. [1920 Census MT Cascade]

McCoy, Thomas. Thomas McCoy, a black man, roomed at 1118 5th Avenue South in 1915and worked as manager of the Ozark Club located at 119 Second Avenue South. In 1916 McCoy served as Steward at the Ozark Club 323 Second Avenue South, and lived at 502 Third Avenue South. He was a pallbearer at the funeral of Samuel Porter held 23 May 1917. [GFLD 7 Sep 1914, p. 6; GFTD 7 Sep 1914, p. 3; 1915 GFCD 1915; 1916]

McCracken, Joseph M. and Susan B. Smith. Joseph M. McCracken and his wife Susan “Susie” B. Smith McCracken were married about 1900 and came to Great Falls in 1902 from Missouri. Joseph was born 27 Feb 1864 in MO, while Susie was born about 1872 in MO. In Great Falls Joseph worked as porter at Matthews & Jewell and the family resided at 115 First Avenue South. By 1904-05 the McCrackens owned their own home at 605 Ninth Avenue South and Joseph worked as a laborer. Susie was a very active member of the A. M. E. Church in groups like the Ladies’ Aid Society. In 1913 Joseph was janitor at the Breen Block, and the family resided at 1216 Sixth Avenue South. By 1918-19 Joseph was a fireman and the family owned a home at 605 Ninth Avenue South. In 1920 Joseph was working as a porter at a bank. Susie McCracken passed on 17 Sep 1924 after a long illness. She was survived by her husband, two brothers, Ison and Henry Smith of Great Falls and one sister. Funeral services were held at the A. M. E. Church with Rev. H. C. White officiating. She was interred in Highland Cemetery. Joseph remarried to Lulu Malvina Taylor before 1927. [1903, 1904-05, 1913, 1918, 1919, 1923, 1927-28 GFCD; GFLD 27 Jan 1917, p. 6; GFTD 12 Jan 1908, p. 3; GFLD 18 Sep 1924, p. 9; 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

McCracken, Joseph M. and Melvina Taylor. Joseph M. McCracken and his second wife, Melvina or Malvina Taylor, lived in the family home, valued at $2,000, at 605 Ninth Avenue South in 1930. Melvina was born In CO about 1884. She was first married to Mr. Taylor about 1909 and divorced. Melvina’s son, age 20 born in CO, was in the household in 1930. Joseph worked as janitor for the Gas Company. Melvina did day work odd jobs, and her son, Albert, was a janitor for the Gas Co. He passed on 30 Jun 1939 and is interred at Highland Cemetery. He was survived by his widow and three nieces and one nephew living in CO and KS. [1930 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 1 Jul 1939, p. 8; CC Cemetery Records]

McCully, Reverend Benjamin F. Reverend Benjamin F. McCully served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Sep 1895 to Aug 1896 and Oct 1903 to Aug 1905. Under the leadership of Rev. Baker and Rev. McCully, the Church was freed from debt and formally dedicated in services 10 Aug 1905. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; GFLD 5 Aug 1905, p. 8]

McDonald, Walter and Elizabeth Allen Chandler. Walter McDonald, a black man from Dillon was married 28 Nov 1914 in Great Falls to Elizabeth Chandler of Dillon. Walter was born in 1870 in IL, the son of Peter and Lucy Freeman McDonald. He had been previously married. Elizabeth was born in CO in 1872, daughter of Alfred and Susie Taylor Allen. Elizabeth also had been previously married. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6588]

McDonald, William. William McDonald, a 32 year old black man, worked at a theater and roomed at 614 Seventh Avenue South, the home of Edward Bigbee. William was born about 1878 in Missouri. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

McFarlin, Lee. Lee McFarlin, a black man, served as pallbearer at the funeral of Mrs. John Taylor in Great Falls in Mar 1918. [GFTD 7 Mar 1918, p. 2]

McFarland, Oscar Haywood and Lillian. Oscar Haywood McFarland (or McFarlin), a black man, served as pallbearer at the funeral of Mrs. John Taylor in Great Falls in Mar 1918. Oscar McFarlin registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918 at age 37. He was born 26 Aug 1881, and his nearest relative, his wife Lillian McFarlin of 1218 Seventh Avenue South. Oscar worked as a laborer for A. J. Brightenstien. In 1920 Oscar owned and lived with his wife at 1218 Seventh Avenue South. He was born in TX and worked as a porter at Goodman Cigar Store. His wife, Lillian, was born about 1877 in TX. In their household was a niece Villian Junus [name not clear], age 11 born in NV. In 1923 Oscar and Lillian were still in Great Falls. In 1925 Oscar worked as janitor for Mountain States Telegraph, and he and his wife remained at 1218 Seventh Avenue South. [GFTD 7 Mar 1918, p. 2; WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1923, 1925-26 GFCD]

McFee, Richard. Richard McFee, a young black man, lived at 519 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917. Richard registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was born 12 May 1891 at Miami, FL, and was unmarried. He lived at 519 Sixth Avenue South and was employed by Ed Sims as a bootblack. In Oct 1917, McFee was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. In late Nov 1917 Richard was stationed at Camp Upton, NY. [WWI Draft; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917; GFLD 26 Oct 1917, p. 8; GFLD 4 Dec 1917, p. 6]

McGee, Aaron. Aaron McGee, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 11 Sep 1918 at age 38. He was born 23 Oct 1880. He worked as dining car chief cook for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Commissary in Great Falls. His nearest relative was recorded as Frances McGee, a sister, of 278 Rich Street, San Francisco, CA. [WWI Draft]

McGriff, Reverend Daniel L and Byrdie M. Reverend Daniel L. McGriff and his wife lived in Great Falls from 1919 to 1923, where he was pastor of the black Emmanuel Baptist Church at 1126 Fifth Avenue South. Rev. McGriff was born about 1876 in TX. His wife Byrdie M. was born in IL about 1876. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFTD 16 Mar 1921, p. 8; CC Marriage Licenses Book 16, No 9907; 1923 GFCD]

McGuire, Claude. []

McGuire, Claud. Claud McGuire, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fals on 5 Jun 1917 at age 27. He was born 29 Oct 1889 at Athern, AL, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern in Great Falls. His address was recorded as Athern, AL. Claude McGuire departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

McMullen, David. David McMullen, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1899. [GFLD 27 Oct 1899, p. 4]

McPheeter, Cora. Mrs. Cora McPheeter, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916. She worked as a cook at Dottie Hazzard’s at Tenth Alley South and residing at 511 Fourth Avenue South in Feb 1916. She was a witness to the murder of Nina Green by Josephine Enoax. [GFTD 13 Feb 1916, p. 11; GFTD 12 Feb 1916, p. 2; 1916 GFCD]

McVey, John and Odessa. John McVey, a 30 year old black man, lived with his family at 310 Second Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. He was born about 1880 in NB. In 1907 John married Odessa [NFI]. She was born about 1885 in MI. Their daughter, Eddy, was born in 1909 in MT. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Meek, Charles M. Charles M. Meek (or Meeks) was one of the most dynamic and important black leaders in early Great Falls. Charles was born about 1845, son of Solomon and Maria Meek, slaves on a southern plantation in TN, and he spent his early boyhood days as a house servant for his master. When the Civil War broke out, he either escaped or was freed and came north, where he fell in with Union troops, and became a “handy man” for General Grant. He was in Grant's service for a good share of the war, but later joined a black regiment and saw a good deal of actual fighting. When he first joined the army he could neither read nor write, but one of the officers in Grant's staff became interested in the young man and taught him to read and write. He perfected his education to such an extent that he was in later years a remarkably well informed man. Before leaving Grant's service, the general offered to send him to college, but Meek didn't care to go. Charles was married in KS but his wife died and he never remarried. About 1880, Charles Meek and his brother, Joseph, came up the Missouri to Fort Benton and took part in the first stampede to Barker. He had some valuable mining claims in Barker and Yogo, but because of lack of capital to work them never realized any return for his prospecting labor. In 1887 Charles came to Great Falls, where he worked a porter at the corner of Central Avenue and First Street. In Nov 1888 Charles Meek served as juror at the Second Term of the District Court, the first known black juror to serve in Montana. In Oct 1890, Charles spoke at the organizational meeting at Minot Hall to form a black Republican political club. In 1889, 1891, and 1894, Charles was elected delegate from the First Ward to Cascade County Republican Conventions. In the 1894 county Republican convention, he gave an eloquent speech that led to the nomination of William Morgan to run for Great Falls townsite constable, the first black man to be nominated and elected to public office in Cascade County, and possibly in Montana. He was a member of the A. M. E. Church and an active member in the Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.). In Mar 1891, Charles Meek served a second time as a juror in Cascade County in the District Court. In June 1895, Meeks served a juror in the murder trial of Harry Crowe, charged with killing James Morgan. After farming near Great Falls for several years, in Jan 1898, Charles Meek left Great Falls with another black friend, Moses Williston/Wilson to join the stampede to the Klondike gold rush. After two or three years in the Yukon, Charles moved on to mine in ID. In Apr 1901 Charles returned to Great Falls from Republic, WA, where he was badly injured in a recent mining accident. He returned again to Great Falls for a visit in Jun 1905, after undergoing a medical operation at La Crosse, WI. In Oct 1909 in poor health, Charles Meek returned to Great Falls and died at the Deaconess Hospital in Apr 1910. His only known relative was brother, Joseph W. Meek, at White Sulphur Springs. Joseph Meek has fought with the famed black regiment, the 54th Massachusetts. Funeral arrangements were under the G.A.R., and on 10 Apr 1910 his body was interred in the soldiers' plot in Highland cemetery. Charles Meek was one of the best known and most highly respected black men in northern Montana. [1887 GFCD; GFLD 7 Oct 1890, p. 5; GFTD 7 Apr 1910; GFLD 18 Aug 1889; GFLD 2 Mar 1891, p. 8; GFLD 4 Apr 1891, p. 5; GFLD 4 Sep 1894; GFLD 27 Jul 1892, p. 5; GFTD 5 Sep 1894; GFLD 15 Oct 1894, p. 1; GFLD 2 Nov 1894; GFLW 13 Jun 1895, p. 6; GFTD 20 Jan 1898, p. 4; GFLD 1 Jul 1905, p. 5; GFTD 7 Apr 1910; CC Cemetery Records]

Merriweather, Sadie. Sadie Merriweather, a black woman, spent time in Great Falls and Helena in 1910, and then returned home in KY. [MTPD 1 Apr 1910, p. 4]

Mikhed, H. Eliza. Eliza H. Mikhed, a 35 year old black man worked as a laborer for the railroad and boarded on the south side of Great Falls in 1920. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Miller, Belle. Miss Belle Miller, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1911. She was born in 1885 in Dakota Territory. In Apr 1911 Belle pleaded guilty of arson and was sentenced to one year in prison at Deer Lodge. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 7]
Miller, Clarina. Clarina or Clara Miller was born in MO in Jan 1835. She was the mother of Elizabeth, wife of Edward Simms. In the 1900 census, Mrs. Miller was in the household of Ed Simms as mother in law and mother of two children, one (Elizabeth) living. Her husband Garrett was deceased. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901 GFCD]

Miller, Florence. Florence Miller, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 8 Dec 1918, p. 2]

Miller, James. James Miller, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 11 Sep 1918. He was born 11 Oct 1884. He worked as a laborer for the City of Great Falls and roomed at 514 Fourth Avenue South. [WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Miller, Katy B. See Lemuel and Katy B. Miller Lucas.

Miller, Lelia. Lelia Miller, a black child living in Great Falls, visited her Aunt Mrs. Carrie Johnson in Helena, and then returned to Great Falls in Sep 1910. [MTPD 30 Sep 1910, p. 4]

Mills, Bud. Bud Mills, a black man, co-owned Ab Walton & Bud Mills saloon at 218 Third Avenue South and roomed at 315 Third Avenue South in 1901. In Aug 1902 Bud was living at 517 Sixth Avenue South, when he was stabbed and slashed by Bob Cunningham Bud recovered from the wounds. He was a member of the Masonic order and attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; GFLD 11 Aug 1902, p. 5; 1901 GFCD]

Mills, Gladys. Gladys Mills, a black woman, live in Great Falls in 1911. She was born in 1887 in TN. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners 2, p. 7

Mills, Lee and Louise Taylor. Lee Mills, a black man, lived in Great Falls in the early 1900s. He was born in Dec 1870 in TX, the son of Charles and Alice Thompson Mills. Lee worked as a steward at the Electric City Club and roomed at 315 Third Avenue South. In 1900 Lee lived at 407 Second Street South in Great Falls and worked as a porter. On 7 Mar 1902 in Great Falls, Lee married Louise Taylor of Great Falls with Rev. W. L. N. Baker of the A. M. E. Church officiating. She was born in Salt Lake City UT in 1874, the daughter of Henry Taylor. In 1903 Lee Mills worked as steward at the Electric City Club and roomed at 517 Sixth Avenue South. In 1904-05 Lee was a mail carrier at the Post Office and boarded at 1212 Sixth Avenue South. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Marriage Register Book 4, No. 2407; 1901, 1903, 1004-05 GFCD]

Milyock, Joseph M. Joseph M. Milyok, a 35 year old black man worked as a janitor in a restaurant and boarded on the south side of Great Falls in 1920. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Miner, J. William. J. William Miner or Minar, a black man, was active in the “Colored Democratic quartet” during the political campaign in Great Falls in 1892. He worked a a house known as the “Palace” on the Row. [GFTD 7 Sep 1892; GFLD 29 Nov 1892, p. 8]

Minor, LaNita E. Knott. LaNita (aka Laneta), daughter of David and Katie Knott was born about 1902. In 1919 Laneta Knott worked as a maid and boarded at 711 Eighth Avenue South. By 1941, LaNita had married Mr. Minor and moved to Oakland, CA. [1919 Great Falls Directory; 1910 Census MT Cascade County; GFTD 19 Jun 1961]

Mitchell, Charles. Charles Mitchell, a black man, was an early lightweight boxer in Great Falls in 1887. [GFTSW 28 Dec 1887, p. 3]

Mitchell, Clive H. and Florence. Clive H. Mitchell, a 35 year old black man, worked as a janitor in a hotel and lived in a rental house with his wife Florence at 609 Eighth Avenue South in 1920. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Mitchell, James. James Mitchell, a black man operated a small barbershop on the south side of Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 23 May 1908, p. 5]

Mitchell, James. James Mitchell, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Aug 1892 at Connoy, AR. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. James was married and had two children. His address was recorded as Connoy, AR. [WWI Draft]

Moe, Lottie. Lottie Moe, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 18 Oct 1897, p. 4]

Monroe, Frank and Mollie Simms. Frank Monroe, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1908-12. Frank was born in 1888 in IL, the son of William and Callie Simms Monroe. In Apr 1908 Frank was a pallbearer at the A. M. E. Church funeral of Alfred Johnson. On 13 Feb 1912, Frank married Miss Mollie Simms with A. M. E. minister, Rev. David W. Simms, officiating. Mollie was born in Great Falls in 1890, the daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Miller Simms. [GFTD 20 Apr 1908, p., 8; Marriage Licenses Book 8, No. 5124]

Monroe, James. In Jun 1908, James Monroe, a black man, played first base on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4]

Moore, Claude. Claude Moore, a black man was president of the Lincoln Republican League, political club, in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLD 5 Oct 1894, p. 4]

Moore, Hershel L. and Marie. Hershel L. Moore, a 30 year old black man, worked as a freight house keeper and lived with his wife in Ward 2 at 301 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1890 in TN. Marie Moore was born about 1896 in CO. In 1919 Hershel worked as a porter for Morton & Hyke. Marie died 30 Jan 1926 and is buried at Highland Cemetery. After Marie’s death, Hershel remarried Viola [NFI]. Hershel Moore died 28 Jan 1946 in Great Falls at the age of 56 years. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records]

Moore, John B. John B. Moore, a young black man and the son of John Thomas Moore, lived in Great Falls in 1915. [Check] [CC Cemetery Records]

Moore, John Thomas and Katie Boyce. John Thomas Moore, a black man, came to Great Falls about 1913. He was born in KY 16 Nov 1872, the son of John Benjamin and Mary O. Green Moore. On 27 Jul 1914, John, who was previously married and a widower, married Katie Boyce in Great Falls. Katie was born in KY in 1881, the daughter of Israel and Millie Thomas Boyce, and came to Great Falls about 1912. In 1914, John worked as a porter, and the couple lived at 201 Seventh Avenue South. He witnessed the marriage of James and Susie Smith Steward 19 Aug 1915. The next year John was working as a waiter, and on 25 Dec 1915 he died and was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. In 1919 Katie was working as a dressmaker, still living at 201 Seventh Avenue South. Katie Moore was afflicted with tuberculosis and died of an overdose of cocaine 16 Oct 1922 at the age of 40. Her funeral was conducted at O’Connor’s chapel with Rev. Charles C. Lolow of the Emmanuel Baptist Church officiating and she is buried at Highland Cemetery. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6414; 1914, 1915, 1916, 1919, 1923 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 16 Oct 1922, p. 2; GFLD 18 Oct 1922, p. 2]

Moore, Lee. Lee Moore, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 27 Feb 1894 at Baton Rouge, IN, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. His registration was signed with an X. [WWI Draft]

Moore, Lewis. Lewis Moore/Stokes/Williams, a 13 year old mixed race black orphan, was adopted 23 Aug 1904 by Mr. and Mrs. Moses Williams. His mother, Lizzie Moore, died in 1902, and his father had left the area by 1898. Lewis was brought from the Logging Creek area to Great Falls, and in May 1901 was adopted by Harry and Mollie Stokes. After Harry’s death, Mollie was not able to support the bright youngster and gave him up to be adopted by the Williams family. [GFLD 20 Jun 1904, p. 2; GFLD 23 Aug 1904, p. 5; GFLD 6 May 1901, p. 5]

Moore, Louise. Louise Moore, a 7 year old black child, lived in the household of Mattie Stucks at 313 Third Street South in 1900. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Moore, Maggie. Maggie Moore, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 1 Jan 1918, p. 8]

Moore, Vittoria and Eileen. Vittoria Mooer, a 37 year old black woman, worked for the railroad and lived at the home of a Polish immigrant Mary Senko 166 First Avenue South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Vittoria was born in ME about 1883 and was a widow. Eileen Moore, a 14 year old young woman, was in the same household with her mother, Vittoria. Eileen was born in MT, the daughter of a deceased Irish father. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

More, John S. and Pleasant. John S. More, a 37 year old black man, rented a house at 915 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls, lived there with his wife Pleasant, and worked as a cook for the railroad in 1920. John was born in KS about 1883. [1920 Census MT Cascade]

Morgan, Mrs. A. L. Mrs. A. L. Morgan, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 17 Mar 1916, p. 6]

Morgan, “Babe.” “Babe” Morgan, aka Juanita Douglass, a black woman, the wife of William Spencer (aka Bernard Malone), apparently married in Butte in 1915 and lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Morgan, Miss Florence. Miss Florence Morgan, a young black woman, lived in the household of William M. Morgan, her uncle. After his death in 1899, Florence worked as a domestic and remained in the household with Mrs. Tennie Morgan at 504 Seventh Avenue South. Florence was born in Jan 1875 in TN. In 1903 Florence worked as a domestic and resided at 316 Fourth Avenue North. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1903 GFCD]

Morgan, Frank. Frank Morgan, an 18 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1902. He was arrested for incorrigibility on complaint of his mother [NFI]. This possibly may be Frank Smith Morgan. [GFTD 22 Oct 1902, p. 4]

Morgan, Frank Smith. Frank Smith Morgan, a 33 year old black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 10 Sep 1918. He was born 2 Feb 1885. He worked as a porter for J. M. Dellabaugh on Central Avenue, and resided at 515 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls. No nearest relative was recorded. In 1919 Frank worked as a steward at the Ozark Club. In 1923 Frank worked as a shoe shiner at R. E. Lee and lived at 223 Second Avenue South. By 1925 Frank worked as a porter and lived at 609 Seventh Avenue South. [WWI Draft; 1919, 1923, 1925-26 GFCD]

Morgan, Harry M. Harry M. Morgan, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918 at age 44. He was born 7 Feb 1874, was married to Mamie and lived at 502 Third Street South. He worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft; GFCD 1918]

Morgan, Mamie. Mamie Morgan, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 1 Jan 1918, p. 8; GFLD 18 Jan 1918, p. 8]

Morgan, Mary M. Mary M. Morgan, a 50 year old black woman lived in Ward 3 in Great Falls. She was born about 1860 in NY. A 25 year old son was in her household, but his name is not legible in the census. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Morgan, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. W. F. Morgan, a black man, was living with his wife and son at Eighth Avenue North and Thirteenth Street in 1896. On 10 May, he died at age 60 after suffering for months from asthma and dropsy. In Aug 1895 Morgan and his family moved from Belt to Great Falls. He was admitted to the county poor house on 12 Dec and remained there until 5 Feb when he was released. He was survived by his wife and a 10 year old son. [GFLD 9 May 1896, p. 4; CC Reg Deaths]

Morgan, William M. Morgan and Tennesse. William Morgan was elected Great Falls township Constable in 1894, making him very likely the first black American to be elected to public office in Montana. William M. Morgan was born in Harrodsburg, Kentucky in 1842 and came to the Sun River valley in Montana territory in 1881. Before 1890, he moved into Great Falls, built a house, and quickly became a leader in the black community. In 1891, Morgan joined Ed Simms and former “buffalo-soldier” Sergeant A. W. Ray as trustees in building the A. M. E. church at 916 Fifth Avenue South. Active in Republican party politics, Morgan received appointment as janitor at the court house, in those days a “plumb” political job. He operated also a small business cleaning houses. In 1892 William was janitor of the Cascade County courthouse. In Jun 1894, William was one of ten men from Great Falls who formed a black Masonic Lodge, Sunset Lodge No. 12. William served as the first treasurer. In Oct 1894 William, J. H. Redd, and Ed Simms organized a black lodge of the I. O. O. F. (Odd Fellows) for Great Falls. In the election of 1894, William Morgan was nominated at the Republican convention with a white candidate, Joseph E. Huston, for two open Great Falls townsite constable positions. In this remarkable election, the Democrats and Populists each fielded two white candidates. The Great Falls Leader endorsed Morgan and Huston, saying: "They make a good team . . . They will get a large vote." The Leader’s prediction proved correct, and in Nov 1894, the people of Great Falls elected Huston and Morgan to office. Constable Morgan served well in office from 1894-96. He later ranched along the Missouri River and drove the Great Falls to Millegan stagecoach. In 1897, Mrs. Tennessee Morgan went back to TN to visit relatives. In Sep 1898, William helped the Cascade County Sheriff Proctor capture horse thief, Ed Short, near Morgan’s ranch in the vicinity of Box Elder Park. His death occurred 24 Mar 1899 at his home at 504 Seventh Avenue South. The Tribune marked his passing as the “Death of a Good Citizen.” William’s funeral at the A. M. E. church was followed by burial in Old Highland Cemetery. He left his wife Tennie and a niece Florence Morgan and a nephew who made their home with him. In the 1900 census, Tennie Morgan worked as a domestic and resided at 504 Seventh Avenue South with her niece Florence Morgan. Tennessee or Tennie was born in Jan 1852 in TN. [GFLD 30 Oct 1890, p. 5; GFLD 21 Jan 1892, p. 8; GFLD 19 Sep 1892, p. 8; GFLW 7 Jun 1894, p. 6; GFTD 11 Oct 1894; GFLD 24 Oct 1894; GFTD 14 Nov 1894; GFLD 6 Sep 1898, p. 4; GFTD 28 Mar 1899, p. 4; GFLD 2 Mar 1897; 1890, 1896 Great Falls Directories]

Morgan, William T. William T. Morgan, a black man, served in the Civil War as a landsman on the United States steamer Sabine. Morgan died in Great Falls 6 May 1896 and was buried in the soldier’s section of Highland Cemetery. In Sep 1905 William T. Morgan’s grave was marked by a white marble government soldier’s headstone. Note: It is possible that this is William G. Morgan, although the middle initial differs and the date of death is 1896 rather than 1899. [GFLD 8 Sep 1905, p. 5]

Morley, Daniel. Daniel Morley, a 70 year old black man, died in Great Falls 27 Jan 1897. He was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Morrow, Ophelia. Ophelia Morrow, a 50 year old black woman, came to Great Falls about Jun 1904 from Kansas City, suffering from asthma and heart troubles. She passed away in Great Falls 26 Sep 1904 at the home J. H. McCracken at 605 Ninth Avenue South. She had no relatives in Great Falls, but had one brother, Herbert Johnson, of Fayette, MO. Ophelia was buried in Old Highland Cemetery 29 Sep 1904. [GFTD 27 Sep 1904, p. 5; CC Cemetery Records]

Morton, George. George Morton, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1911. He worked as a boot black at the stand of Ed Simms. [GFLD 9 Nov 191]

Moseley, Charles. Charles Moseley was a young black man in Great Falls in 1903, working as a porter at 207 Third Avenue South and rooming at the same address. In Feb 1904 he partnered with Miss Stella Stokes to win a cake walk on the dance floor at Luther’s Hall. [GFLD 19 Feb 1904, p. 2; 1903 Great Falls GFCD]

Munroe, James. James Munroe, a 19 year old black man and the son of John Munroe, died at the Deaconess Hospital in Great Falls 19 Dec 1909 of tuberculosis. He came to Montana in 1908 for his health from Kirkwood MO where he reportedly had relatives. [GFTD 20 Dec 1909, p.2; CC Cemetery Records]

Murphy, Carrie. Carrie Murphy, a 31 year old black woman, lived at 502 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920 and worked as a janitor at a railway station. She was born about 1889 in TN. [1910 Census MT Montana]

Murray, May. May Murray, a black woman, lived on the lower South side in Great Falls in 1908. [GFTD 9 Sep 1908, p. 5]

Murray, G. H. G. H. Murray, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 1 Dec 1897, p. 4]

Murray, Washington. Washington Murray, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft 12 Oct 1918 at Great Falls. He was born 18 Aug 1877. Washington worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad Freight Depot in Great Falls He lived at 812 Eighth Street South, and his nearest relative was recorded as Dina Murray of Cahabe, AL. In 1920 Washington worked as a laborer For the Great Northern Railroad and boarded at the home of John Taylor at 708 Eighth Avenue South. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Murry, Mollie. Mollie Murry, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFLD 30 Nov 1895, p. 4]

Myers, Grace. Grace Myers, a black woman, lived on the lower South side in Great Falls in 1908. [GFTD 9 Sep 1908, p. 5]

Neal, Harvey. Harvey or “Bulley” Neal or Neil, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 26 Sep 1901, p. 5; GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Neal, Selma. Mrs. Selma Neal, a black woman, resided and worked as housekeeper at 203 Seventh Avenue South in Feb 1916. She was a witness to the murder of Nina Green by Josephine Enoax. [GFTD 13 Feb 1916, p. 11; GFTD 12 Feb 1916, p. 2]

Nelson, M. M. Nelson, a black man, moved from Helena to Great Falls in Jan 1911 to launch a lunch business. [MTPD 27 Jan 1911, p. 1]

Nelson, William A. and Ida William A. Nelson, a 48 year old black man, was lodging in the Cascade County jail in 1910. He was born in TN about 1862. In 1913 William and Ida Nelson lived at 421 Fourth Avenue South, and William worked as a carpenter. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 GFCD]

Newell, Oscar. Oscar Newell, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1896. [GFLD 8 Apr 1896, p. 4]

Novotny, John L. and Mattie Bell Byers. See also Mattie Bell Byers Novotny Welsh. John L. Novotny, a 33 year old white man, worked as a teamster and lived with his family in School District #29 in Cascade Co in 1910. He was born about 1877 in MN of Austrian immigrant parents. His wife Mattie Bell Novotny, a 28 year old mixed race black woman and grand-niece of Mattie Bell Castner, was born in NC in 1882. She married John Novotny in 1900. By 1910 they had five children: John L. born 1901; Arthur born 1903; Grace M. born 1905; Harvey G. born 1907; Phoebe Blanche born 1909. Mattie Novotny of 718 Eighth Avenue South gave birth to female child 4 Jul 1912. John worked as a teamster and lived with his wife Mattie and their seven children at 915 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1913. On 18 Aug 1914, Mattie gave birth to a baby boy with notation 1/8th colored and 8 children). Other children included Herbert and Wallace. In 1928 Mattie Novotny lived at 1303 Sixth Avenue South. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 Great Falls Census Directory; GFLD 22 Dec 1917, p. 5; CC Jail Register of Prisoners Bk 5, p. 9; CC Reg Births]

Novotny, John L. John L. Novotny, the son of John L. and Mattie Novotny, grew up in Great Falls and graduated from Great Falls High school He was born in Cascade County, MT in 1901. He joined the new army air corps during World War I to become a combat pilot, and was wounded. After extensive treatment at Veteran’s Hospitals, John died at Sheridan, WY Veteran’s Hospital 26 Jan 1928 from wartime wounds. He was buried 31 Jan 1928 with full military honors in the Veterans Section at Highland Cemetery [GFTD 28 Jan 1928, p. 11]

Novotny, Phoebe Blanche. Phoebe Blanche Novotny, a mixed race young lady and the daughter of John L. and Mattie Bell Byers was born in Great Falls in 1909. She went to Great Falls schools as well as St. Mary’s High School and participated in Girls’ League, Forum, and basketball. In June 1926, Phoebe graduated from Great Falls High School with comment in the Roundup: “Phoebe is one of the brilliant girls of the class.” [GFHS Roundup 1926]

Nicholson, Newton. Newton Nicholson, a 74 year old black man, was a cook in the boarding house of Mary J. Monroe at 109 Seventh Street North in Ward 1 of Great Falls in 1920. Newton was born about 1846 in VA. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Oldham, Walter H. Walter H. Oldham, a young black man, lived at 215 First Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917. He was arrested in Sep 1917 for stealing two cases of whiskey. In Oct 1917, Oldham was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [FBRPW 26 Sep 1917; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Omes, Clemous and Maggie Dodd. Celemous Omes, a black man, and his wife Maggie Dodd Omes lived at 614 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1917, when on 14 Sep Maggie gave birth to a baby boy, the couples second child. [CC Reg Births]

Orme, Frank. Frank Orme, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 25 Feb 1889 at Jefferson City, MO, and was married. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. Franklin Orme departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Palmer, Walter. Walter Palmer, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. In Oct 1917, Palmer was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Parker, Beatrice and Mary M. Bell Smith. Beatrice (aka Bee or B.) Parker, a young black man, lived in Great Falls during the period 1913-20. He was born 18 Apr 1886 in MO, the son of Wade and Julia Jackson Parker. In 1913 he worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railroad and boarded at 702 Eighth Avenue South. On 1 Feb 1915, Bee Parker married Mrs. Mary Bell Smith with Rev. N. H. Prince of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Mary was born in 1877 in TN, the daughter of Henry and Jane Hubbard Bell. She was previously married and divorced. In 1915, Bee worked as janitor for the Great Falls National Bank and resided at 702 Eighth Avenue South. Mary Parker died 23 Dec 1917 in Great Falls. Her funeral was conducted 26 Dec at the A. M. E. Church with Rev. George Edward Horsey officiating and was buried at Highland Cemetery. Mary was survived by her husband, a daughter Armeto, and two sisters in Nashville. On 28 Aug 1918, Bee Parker married Anna McFarlane Dennis of Great Falls with Rev. George Horsey of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Anna was born in 1888 in TX, the daughter of William and Anna Morris McFarlane. Beatrice registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. At that time he was working as a porter for the Ford Bros. at the First National Bank. His wife, Anna, was recorded as his closest relative. In 1920 Beatrice lived at 702 Eighth Avenue South with his daughter Armeto age 12 born MT; J. A. Lindsay (indicated as “mother”) age 54 born MO; and Selma Lindsay (indicated as daughter) age 6 born MO. Armeto and Selma attended school. In 1930 Beatrice lived at his home at 702 Eighth Avenue South, valued at $2,000 with two roomers Eugene and Molle Jackson. B. worked as a janitor of a public building. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6702; 1913, 1915, 1919 GFCD; WWI Draft; GFTD 25 Dec 1917, p. 9; CC Marriage Licenses Book 14, No. 9231; 1920, 1930 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 24 Dec 1917, p. 7; GFLD 26 Dec 1917, p. 7]

Parker, James. James Parker, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Parker, Lee. In Jun 1908, Lee Parker, a black man, played second base on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4]

Parker, Rhoda. Rhoda Parker, a black woman, gave money to the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls in 1894. [1894 A. M. E. Church Minutes]

Parker, Rose. Rose Parker, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFLD 3 Aug 1895; 2 Sep 1895]

Parks, Eugene. Eugene Parks, a 27 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 9 Sep 1917, p. 16]

Patterson, Edward. Edward Patterson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 21 Sep 1918 at age 45. He was born 22 Jan. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls and lived at 208 Fifth Avenue South. Thomas W. Patterson, a brother of Los Angeles, CA, was recorded as his nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

Paul, John A and Jennie. John A. Paul was a black man who worked as a contractor and owned apartments at 320 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls from 1913-19. He was married to Jennie [NFI], and they had five children. [GFLD 20 Feb 1917; 1913 Great Falls Census Directory; 1919 GFCD]

Paul, Joseph E and Martha Wilson Prior. Joseph E. Paul, a 34 year old black man, of St. Paul married Martha Prior of Great Falls on 15 May 1913 in Great Falls. Joseph was born in 1879 in IL, the son of Frank and Nennetta Williams Paul. Martha was born in 1887 in OH, the daughter of Andrew and Rilda Chapman Wilson. She had been previously married and divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 9, No. 5689]

Payne, Cora. Cora Payne, a black woman, witnessed the marriage of John W. Robinson and Lida Smith in Great Falls 14 Dec 1899 at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls. [CC Marriage Licenses, Bk 3, p. 607, No. 1833]

Payne, Maggie Stokes. See Theodore O. and Stella Stokes Johnson.

Payne, William Utley and Susan M. Bigbee. See also William H. and Susan M. Bigbee Dotson. William Utley Payne, a black man, lived in Great Falls during the period 1901-14. William was the son of Alfred Payne and born in TN in 1867. In 1901 William married Susan Bigbee, the daughter of Porter and Elizabeth Bigbee and born in TN in 1866. William worked as a teamster for the Nilson-Smith Company (general contractors and fuel dealers) until his death 4 Sep 1914 at age 40. He also owned the Big Bee Ranch southwest of Great Falls. His funeral was held 6 Sep at O’Connor’s Chapel followed by services at the A. M. E. Church conducted by Rev. William A. Brain, followed by burial at Highland Cemetery. His wife Susan M. Bigbee Payne survived him and later remarried William H. Dotson. [CC Cemetery, I; 1910 Cascade County Census; 1914, 1915 Great Falls City Directories; GFLD 5 Sep 1914, p. 3; GFTD 5 Sep 1914, p. 6]

Pearce, Moses. Moses Pearce, a 55 year old divorced black man, worked as a laborer on the railroad and boarded at the home of John Taylor at 708 Eighth Avenue South. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Pearl, Black. Black Pearl, a black man, was a boxer based in Great Falls in 1891. [GFLD 3 Dec 1891, p. 5]

Pendleton, Julius. Julius Pendleton, a black man, work as a barber in the barbershop of J. T. Dowell in the basement of No. 15 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 14 Sep 1904, p. 5; GFLD 15 Sep 1904, p. 3]

Penn, Ernest J. Ernest J. Penn, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Penny, Earnest. Earnest Penny, a 25 year old black man, worked as a porter at a hotel and lived in Ward 2 at 220 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1895 in MO and was unmarried. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Perkins, Charles W. Charles W. Perkins, a 40 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1900. he was born in OR about 1860. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Perkins, Ezekial G. and Susan. Ezekial (or Ely) Perkins, a 45 year old black man, lived with his family at 213 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was a born Jan 1855 in TX and worked as a laborer. His wife Susan was born in Dec 1860 in LA, and Ezekial and Susan married in 1884. Their five children were: Mary born Feb 1888 in Dakota Territory in school; Florence born Apr 1890 in MT in school; Edith born Mar 1892 in MT; Charles M. born Jan 1895 in MT; and Frank born Jun 1898 in MT. In 1901 Ezekial worked as news agent for the Great Northern Railway and the family resided at 706 First Avenue Southwest. In 1903-05, Ezekial worked as a porter and the family resided at a brick yard north of Montana Brewery. In 1908 Ezekial worked as a car repairman in Great Falls. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901, 1903, 1904-05 GFCD; GFTD 11 May 1908]

Person, Andrew. Andrew Person, aka John Stull, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFLD 6 Sep 1895, p. 4; GFLD 9 Sep 1895, p. 4]

Pettiford, Isabella. See John W. and Isabella Pettiford Robinson.

Phelps, Sergeant. Sergeant Phelps, a black soldier from the 25th Infantry Regiment came to Great Falls with Sergeant A. W. Ray in Oct 1888 and both bought property. It is not known whether Sgt. Phelps settled here. [GFTD 20 Oct 1888, p. 4]

Pickard, Celia. Celia Rickard a 50 year old year old black woman, worked as a servant in home of Herbert Templeton and lived at his home at 1226 Third Avenue North in Great Falls in 1910. Templeton owned the Templeton Lumber Company with his brother. Celia was born about 1860 in GA. In 1920 Celia was still working as a servant for the Templetons. She died 25 Feb 1924 in Great Falls at age 71 and was buried at Highland Cemetery. [1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records]

Pickard, William A. William A. Pickard, a black man, died in Great Falls 25 Feb 1924 and was buried at Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Pleasant, N. N. Pleasant, a 23 year old black man, was lodging in the Cascade County jail in 1910. He was born in MT about 1887. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Pointer, Major. Major. Pointer, a black man, joined with other black residents of Great Falls to form a “Limekiln club” in Sep 1889. In Oct 1890 he spoke at the organizational meeting of a black Republican political club at Minot Hall. [GFTD 26 Sep 1889, p. 4; GFLD 7 Oct 1890, p. 5]

Porter, Charles H. Charles H. Porter, a 35 year old unmarried black man, lived at 217 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls and managed the black nightclub on the south side in 1900. He was born Feb 1865 in TX. In 1901 Charles moved to Kalispell. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901 GFCD; GFLD 12 Mar 1900, p. 4; GFLD 23 Jan 1901, p. 4]

Porter, Howard J and Sadie Rogan. Howard J. (or H. J.) Porter, a black man, a long time resident of Great Falls was born in KY 16 Aug 1885, the son of Samuel and Emma Scott Porter. In 1900 Howard J. was working as a cook for his parents at 617 Fourth Avenue South. By 1903 he was a porter and living at 318 Fourth Avenue South. In May 1904 Howard was a member of the Masonic order and attended the Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls. In 1910 Howard worked as a cook and boarded at 617 Fourth Avenue North. On 15 Oct 1910, Howard was married to Sadie M. Rogan of Great Falls with the Rev. J. A. Martin Pastor of the First Methodist Church officiating. Sadie was born in 1890 in WA, the daughter of ____ and Edith Jones Rogan. In 1915 Howard was a porter at the Rainbow Hotel, and he and Sadie resided with his parents. Howard registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was working as a self-employed truck driver, and lived at 717 Third Street South with his wife, Mrs. Sadie Porter. For some years Howard worked as a bartender at the Park Hotel. After a long illness, H. J. Porter died 3 Jul 1949 in Great Falls at the age of 64 years and was buried at Highland Cemetery. [1900, 1903, 1910, 1915 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4605; CC Cemetery Records; WWI Draft; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; GFLD 4 Jul 1949, pp. 1-2]

Porter, James A. and Martha A. Thompson. James A. Porter, Jr., a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1904. He was born in Mexico in 1878, the son of James A. and Elizabeth A. Wellington Porter. He previously had been married and was a widower. On 24 Oct 1904 in Great Falls, James married Miss Martha A. Thompson of Great Falls. Martha was born in Nashville, TN in 1889, the daughter of Newton and Maria Gillam Thompson. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3025]

Porter, L. T. L. T. Porter, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1908. [GFTD 10 Jun 1908]

Porter, Samuel B. and Emma Scott. Samuel B. and Emma Scott Porter were long time, well known black residents of Great Falls. Samuel was born in KY in 1861. He married Emma Scott, and in 1885 their son Howard J. was born in KY. Emma Scott was born in Georgetown, KY in Oct 1866. The Porters came to Great Falls in 1890. Emma worked for the H. B. Rose laundry at 312 Third Street South in 1892, and resided there. In 1893 Samuel operated a confectionery at 110 Third Street South and the family resided there. In 1896-97 Samuel was a cook, residing at 318 Fourth Avenue South, and Emma was a laundress at 312 Third Street South. By 1900 Samuel owned a house at 617 Fourth Avenue South. In 1903 Samuel worked as a porter at M. H. Luther block. Samuel was called to jury duty in the Ricketts trial in Mar 1906, and at the time the Tribune noted that he was “believed to be the second colored man drawn for jury duty in the history of [Cascade] county.” By 1913 Samuel was ranching in Cascade County. Samuel Porter died 20 May 1917 at age 56 at his Great Falls residence at 617 Fourth Avenue South and was buried at Highland Cemetery. He was a pioneer ranchman near Portage and resided in Cascade County about 27 years. In 1920 Emma worked as a maid in a store and owned her home at 617 Fourth Avenue South with the Kilberts lodging there. Emma Porter died 25 Jun 1931 in Great Falls with Rev. C. B. Clements of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Emma is buried in Highland Cemetery. She worked for many years as a maid at the Paris Dry Goods company store. Emma was survived by a son, Howard J. Porter of Great Falls; a sister, Mrs. Betty K. Lewis of Georgetown, KY; a brother, the Rev. Samuel B. Scott, A. M. E. minister, of Cincinnati, OH; and three nieces, one of whom is Miss Lorena A. Spaulding, who made her home with Mrs. Porter. Mrs. Porter was a niece of Mrs. Samuel G. Spaulding, who died recently in Havre. Lorena A. Spaulding died in Great Falls 30 Jun 1968 and was buried 5 Jul at Highland Cemetery. [1892, 1893, 1896-97, 1900, 1910, 1913, 1914, 1915 GFCD; GFTD 6 Mar 1906, p. 6; GFLD 20 May 1917, p. 7; GFTD 21 May 1917, p. 3; GFTD 24 May 1917, p. 7; GFTD 26 Jun 1931, p.13; GFTD 29 Jun 1931, p. 9; CC Cemetery Records; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Posey, Frank W. N. and Mary Willis. Frank W. N. Posey, a 27 year old black man, lived in Choteau in 1891. He was born in Baltimore, MD in 1864, the son of Samuel and Amanda Wines Posey. Frank was previously married. On 11 Aug 1891 at Great Falls, Frank married Mary Willis of Great Falls with A. M. E. minister Rev. J. H. Childress officiating. Mary was born in 1865 at Petersburg, VA, of unrecorded parents. Mary also was previously married. This is the first recorded marriage by an A. M. E. minister in Great Falls. In 1892 F. W. H. [sic] Posey was a barber at a shop at 113 First Avenue South, residing at 612 Fifth Avenue South. In 1893 Posey was a barber residing in West Great Falls. [CC Marriage Licenses 1891, No. 289; 1892, 1893 GFCD]

Powell, Junious and Carrie McFarlin. Junious Powell, a black man, was born in KY in 1890, the son of James and Mary Atkins Powell. He previously had been married and divorced. On 20 Sep 1916 in Great Falls, Junious married Carrie McFarlin of Great Falls, with Rev. E. L. White of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Carrie was born in 1891 in TX, the daughter of Jennie Wright Hardin. Carrie also had been married and divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7676]

Powell, Margaret. Margaret Powell, a 14 year old black young lady, was attending school and living at Ray Walker’s boarding house at 313 1/2 Third Avenue South in Great Fall 1920. She was born about 1906 in MT. In 1923 Margaret was a student and lived at 609 Seventh Avenue South. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1923 GFCD]

Powers, Mr. Mr. Power, a black man, joined with other black residents of Great Falls to form a “Limekiln club” in Sep 1889. [GFTD 26 Sep 1889, p. 4]

Pride, Wheeler. Wheeler Pride, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1900. [GFLD 11 May 1900, p. 2]

Prince, Reverend William H. Reverend William H. Prince served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Oct 1914 to 1915. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Prior, Martha Wilson. See Joseph E. and Martha Wilson Prior Paul.

Pritey, David and Augusta. David Pritey or Priley, a 49 year old black man, was porter on the railroad out of Great Falls in 1920 and lived with his wife in Ward 3 at 612 Thirteenth Street South. David was born about 1871 in KY. His wife Augusta was a white woman with a German father and French mother. She was born about 1881 in NB. The four children were: Rader, a daughter born in 1911 in MN; a daughter, Lurril, born in 1913 in MN; a daughter, Florence, born in 1916 in MT; and a son, Willis, born in 1918 in MT. Rader and Lurril were in school in 1918. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Raddick, Mrs. Olive. See James T. and Olive Williams Raddick Hatton.

Randolph, B. B. B. B. Randolph lived in Great Falls and witnessed the marriage of John W. Robinson in 1890. [CC Marriage Licenses 1890]

Randolph, Ephriam and Mrs. Ephriam Randolph, a black man lived in Great Falls with his wife [NFI] in 1890. [GFLD 19 Mar 1890; GFLD 20 Mar 1890]

Randolph, William. William Randolph, a black man lived in Great Falls in 1898. He had served in the Army and was earlier stationed at Fort Assiniboine. In Dec 1898, William was sentenced to four years in the state penitentiary for burglary. [GFLD 9 Aug 1898, p. 4; GFLD 13 Oct 1898, p. 4; GFLW 20 Oct 1898, p. 8; GFLW 15 Dec 1898, p. 5]

Ray, Albert W. Albert W. (or A. W.) Ray, a black man, was a pioneer and leader in the early black community in Great Falls. He was born in GA and had served in the Army during the Civil War and Indian Wars, holding the rank of 1st Sergeant, Company F, 25th Infantry Regiment at Fort Shaw. In June 1890, Sgt. Ray was discharged from the Army and moved to Great Falls. He built a one story five room house on Seventh Avenue South. Sgt Ray became a leader in the A. M. E. Church as one of the three charter trustees in 1891 and was active in black Republican political politics. In Oct 1890 Ray was elected secretary and gave a major speech at the organizational meeting of a new black Republican political club at Minot Hall. In Sep 1892 he was elected drum major of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. By 1893 A. W. had moved to Helena. His daughter, Albertine M. Ray was born in Helena. [GFTD 3 Aug 1890; GFLD 7 Oct 1890, p. 5; GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4; GFLD 1 Jan 1891; On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier, p. 347; CC Deed Book 6, p. 231]

Ray, Albertine M. Miss Albertine M. Ray, a mixed race black woman, was the daughter of Albert W. Ray. She was born in Helena 25 Feb 1893 and lived in both Helena and Great Falls. In Apr 1910, Albertine was an inmate at the State Reform School in Custer County. In Jan 1920 Albertine was an inmate in the Cascade County Poor Farm in Black Eable. She was still a Cascade County Poor Farm inmate in 1930. She passed away in Great Falls 27 Jul 1937 at age 40. Funeral services were conducted at O’Connor’s with Rev. C. W. Smith of the A. M. E. Church officiating, and Albertine was buried at Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Record; GFTD 29 Jul 1937, p. 7; 1910 Census MT Custer Co.; 1920, 1930 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Ray, Albertine. Albertine Ray, a 56 year old mixed race black man, worked on a ranch near Great Falls and boarded with Frank Yost in Black Eagle in 1920. He was born about 1864 in WI and was unmarried. In 1919 Albertine boarded at 1710 Twelfth Avenue South in Great Falls. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD]

Ray, Miss Mary M. Miss Mary M. Ray, a young black woman lived in Great Falls in 1896. On 24 Jul 1896, she married Martin R. Griffin in Great Falls. [GFTD 24 Jul 1896]

Ray, Miss. Miss Ray, a young black woman, attended a Colored Masonic order Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Ray, Mrs. Mollie. Mrs. Mollie Ray, a black woman, may have been the wife of A. W. Ray. She was a resident of Fort Shaw in 1889. In that year she bought property in Great Falls and probably moved there. She was a friend of Ed and Elizabeth Simms in early Great Falls. [GFTD 9 Feb 1889, p. 4]

Rector, Louis. Louis Rector, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 11 Sep 1917, p. 3]

Redd, H. E. H. E. Redd, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and gave money to the A. M. E. Church. [1894 AME Minutes]

Redd, Reverend J. H. C and Mrs. Reverend J. H. C. Redd served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Oct 1906 to Sep 1907. Rev. Redd was married. He had previously lived in Great Falls in 1894 when he gave money to the A. M. E. Church. In Jun 1894, J. H. Redd was one of ten men from Great Falls who formed a black Masonic Lodge, Sunset Lodge No. 12. In Oct 1894 William Morgan, J. H. Redd, and Ed Simms organized a black lodge of the I. O. O. F. (Odd Fellows) for Great Falls. In May 1907, Rev. & Mrs. Redd and four others from the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls were delegates to the Ministers’ Institute and young people’s meeting of Montana. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; 1894 AME Minutes; GFLW 7 Jun 1894, p. 6; GFTD 11 Oct 1894; GFLD 13 May 1907, p. 3]]

Reddick, Olive. Possibly Olive Riddick. Olive Reddick, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1907 and contributed flowers at the funeral of William Brown. [GFLD 4 Dec 1907, p. 3]

Regney, Walter. Walter Regner, a black man, worked as a waiter in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 24 May 1898, p. 3]

Reid, E. E. Reid, a black man, worked in the barber shop of Charles Lawson in Great Falls in 1895. [GFTD 27 Feb 1895]

Reynolds, Joseph. Joseph Reynolds, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFLW 9 May 1895, p. 8]

Rice, Fred. Fred Rice, a 50 year old black man, worked as a freight house keeper and lived in Ward 2 at 713 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1870 in MO. In 1919 Fred Rice was a porter at Charles Young’s barber shop. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Rice, Fred. Fred Rice, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 28 Jun 1881 at TN. He worked as a porter at 22 Third Street South and lived at 501 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls. Mary Drake of Knoxville, TN was recorded as his nearest relative. Fred Rice died 22 Apt 1951 and is buried at Highland Cemetery. [WWI Draft; CC Cemetery Records]

Richardson, E. E. Richardson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 21 Jul 1898, p. 4]

Richardson, Nelson M. Nelson M. Richardson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 24 Aug 1898, p. 4]

Richey, Cornelius V. and Odessa A. Knott. Cornelius V. Richey of St. Paul, MN, a black man, was born in 1887 in MI, the son of A. R. and Sarah McCorkel Richey. He previously was married and divorced. On 20 Aug 1912 in Great Falls, Cornelius married Odessa A. Knott of Great Falls. Odessa was born in TN about 1887, the daughter of David A. and Katie Winston Knott. Cornelius Richey died 2 Jul 1924 at Cut Bank, MT, at age 37. Odessa later married ____ Mash after 1941 and in 1961 lived in Spokane. See also David A. and Katie Winston Knott. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 8, No. 5348; CC Cemetery Records]

Richie, Bloomer. Bloomer Richie, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 14 May 1894 at Italy, TX, and was unmarried. He worked as a porter at a barbershop at the Great Northern station in Great Falls where he resided. [WWI Draft]

Riddick, Benjamin. Benjamin (or Bennie) Riddick (or Reddick), a black man, lived in Great Fall in 1906-19. In 1906 young Ben Reddick, age 17, was charged with incorribility, upon complaint of his mother. Judge Hanley Ben on his promise to turn over a new leaf. In Apr 1908 Ben was a pallbearer at the A. M. E. Church funeral of Alfred Johnson. In Aug 1915 he witnessed the marriage of James and Susie Smith Steward. In 1919 B. Riddick worked as a waiter and room at 417 1/2 First Avenue South. [GFLD 17 Oct 1906, p. 3; GFTD 20 Apr 1908, p. 8; 1918 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Bk 12, No 6980]

Roberson, J. W. J. W. Roberson, a black man, lived in Great Falls and contributed money to the A. M. E. Church in 1894. [1894 AME Minutes]

Roberts, Al. Al Roberts, a black man, was a laborer living in Great Falls in 1900. [GFLD 20 Aug 1900, p. 4]

Roberts, John and Ella Summers. John Roberts, a black man, and his wife, Ella Summers Roberts, lived at 616 Ninth Avenue South. On 31 Aug 1914, Ella gave birth to a baby boy, their fourth child. [CC Reg Births]

Robinson, Brock. Brock Robinson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1919. He was charged with grand larceny for stealing all the furniture from a house on the Southside. Tried in District Court, Brock was found guilty and sentenced to three years in the state Penitentiary. [GFLD 3 Feb 1919, p. 7]

Robinson, Charles R. and Jessie. Charles R. Robinson, a 31 year old black man, worked porter for the railroad and lived in Ward 2 at 511 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1889 in MS. In 1919, the Robinsons resided at 305 Ninth Avenue South and in 1923 they lived at 718 Fourth Avenue South. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919, 1923 GFCD]

Robinson, Daniel B. and Susan. Daniel B. Robinson, a black man, his wife Susan, and three children lived at 617 Sixth Avenue North in Great Falls in 1899. Daniel came to Great Falls from Kansas about 1896. In poor health Susan, presumably with the three children, came to join her husband about Dec 1898. Early in the morning of 18 May 1899, Susan was found dead in the family home. Her death was ruled accidental. Susan died at age 48, leaving her husband and three children under the age of 16: Cary, David, and Almeta. By a former marriage, Susan had two children, one living in St. Louis and the other in Indian Territory. Her funeral was held 20 May 1899 at the A. M. E. Church. Daniel worked as a hod-carrier, employed by George Rantzau/Rantzan. Daniel Robinson, a 51 year old widower, worked as a day laborer, and owned and lived with his three children at 714 Seventh Street North in Great Falls in the census of 1900. He was born in AL in Dec 1848. His children were Cary S. born Jun 1884 in KS; David E. born Aug 1886 in AL; and Almeta, a daughter, born in Jul 1891 in KS. The children attended school in 1900. [1899 GFCD; CC Coroner’s Inquest #67, filed 18 May 1899; GFLD 18 May 1899, p. 1; GFLD 19 May 1899, p. 3; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Robinson, Frank. Frank Robinson, a black man, died in Great Falls 15 Nov 1893. His funeral was held 17 Nov. [GFLD 17 Nov 1900, p. 4]

Robinson, James. James Robinson, a black man, was a brother of John Robinson and lived in Great Falls 1908-1911. In Jun 1908, James Robinson played left field on the black baseball team, the Mohawks, in Great Falls. In Dec 1911 James was committed to an asylum for treatment of mental problems after a hearing in District Court. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908, p. 4; GFLD 9 Jul 1909, p. 8; GFTD 24 Dec 1911, p. 14]

Robinson, Jennie. Jennie Robinson, a one year old black child, died in Great Falls and was buried at Old Highland Cemetery 12 Mar 1901. [CC Cemetery Records]

Robinson, John W. and Isabella Pettiford. John W. Robinson married Miss Isabella Pettiford in Great Falls 3 Nov 1890. John was born 1868 at Kansas City MO, the son of Isaac Robinson. Isabella Pettiford of Great Falls was born in 1867 at St. Louis MO, the daughter of Archie and Ancrilla Moss Pettiford. They were married by Rev. John Reid, Jr. of the 1st Presbyterian Church. In 1892, John worked as a janitor and resided on Sixth Avenue South between Fifth and Sixth Streets. In 1893 Isabella worked as a washerwoman while John was a janitor. In 1899 John worked as a porter for A. J. Trigg. John and Isabella were later divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses 1890; 1892, 1893, 1899 GFCD]

Robinson, John W. and Lida Johnson Smith. After his divorce from Isabella Pettiford Robinson, John W. Robinson married Lida Johnson Smith on 14 Dec 1899 at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls by Rev. G. H. Smith. Lida was born in 1870 in OH, the daughter of Henry and Henrietta Essex Johnson. Lida was previously married to ____ Smith. In the 1900 census John Robinson, a 34 year old black man, worked as a saloon porter and owned a home where he lived with his two children (but not his wife Lida) at 407 Seventh Street North in Great Falls. He was born in Mar 1866 in MS and was a widower. His children were Mattie born Jun 1890 in MT and Wilford born Oct 1891 in MT. In the 1900 census Lida Robinson a 33 year old black widow worked as a servant in a lodging house at 315 Seventh Street North. Lida was born in OH in Aug 1866 and a widow. John W. Robinson was a member of the black Masonic Lodge. In May 1907, Mrs. Robinson with her daughter Mattie, Rev. & Mrs. Redd, and two others from the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls were delegates to the Ministers’ Institute and young people’s meeting of Montana. In 1908-09 John ran a coal and wood company from his home at 1111 Sixth Avenue South. In 1920 John W. Robinson, a 52 year old black man, a proprietor of a contracting and trucking firm, John W. Robinson & Son, and lived with his wife Lida in their home at 1111 Sixth Avenue South. In their household was son Wilford A. Robinson, a doctor. See also Dr. Wilford A. Robinson. [1900, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Marriage Licenses, Bk 3, p. 607, No. 1833; GFLD 13 May 1907, p. 3; 1913 GFCD]

Robinson, John W. and Mattie Johnson. John W. Robinson, a 34 year old black man, worked as a porter and lived with his wife Mattie and their three children in a home they owned at River Front East Side South in 1900. John was born Mar 1866 in MS. His wife Mattie was born in Jun 1867 in MT. In the household were daughter Rosy born Sep 1890 in MT; son Wilford born Oct 1891 in MT; and daughter Mattie born Mar 1893 in MT. The three children were in school. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Robinson, Morgan. Morgan Robinson, a black man, was active in the “Colored Democratic quartet” during the political campaign in Great Falls in 1892. [GFTD 7 Sep 1892]

Robinson, Robert. Robert Robinson, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918 at age 41. He was born 13 Aug 1877 in IL, and was married to Bertha. He was a barber working at Belt. Robert lived at Belt for fifteen years. He died of heart failure 5 Nov 1923. His funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls 8 Nov with Rev. R. C. White officiating. He was survived by his wife Bertha. [WWI Draft; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 6 Nov 1923, p. 8; GFLD 7 Nov 1923, p. 2]

Robinson, Scott. Scott Robinson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916 and worked for the Great Northern Railway as a trucker in the freight warehouse. [GFLD 11 Feb 1916, p. 10]

Robinson, Dr. Wilford A. Robinson. Wilford A. Robinson, a talented young man, received his medical doctorate degree from Howard University in 1918, possibly becoming the first black American from Montana to complete a professional course in college. Wilford or “Willie” Robinson was born in Great Falls in Oct 1891, the only son of John W. and Mattie Robinson. After completing his junior year at Great Falls High School, Wilford entered Wilberforce University. There he completed a four years’ course in three years, receiving a bachelor of science “cum laude” in 1913. At Wilberforce he was president of his senior class, captain of the football and track teams, and president of the athletic association. In 1915 Robinson entered Howard University and graduated in May 1918 in the upper half of his medical class. He immediately enlisted in the Army medical corps. At the time, his friends claimed that for him the distinction of being the first black American from Montana to receive a professional degree. Throughout his school years, Wilford worked for his father during summer months to pay his way and was helped along the way by his parents. In 1919 Wilford and his father operated a business in Great Falls as “John W. Robinson & Son,” residing at 1111 Sixth Avenue South. There is no known record of what became of Dr. Wilford Robinson. [GFTD 28 Jul 1918, p. 7]

Roof, Clara L. See Harry D. and Clara L. Roof Highwarden.

Rose, John M. John M. Rose, a 35 year old unmarried black man, worked as a porter and lived at 218 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Apr 1865 in KS. The following year, John was employed as a bartender. In 1903-04 John was a porter at Carpenter & Gruel barbershop at 120 1/2 Central Avenue and lived at 123 First Avenue South. In Jul 1904 John found a check made out to F. W. Thayer for $20,000 on the sidewalk and promptly returned it to Thayer. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901, 1903 GFCD; GFLD 29 Jun 1903, p. 2; GFLD 11 Jul 1904, p. 2]

Rose/Ross, Mazeppa. Mazeppa Rose or Ross, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLD 13 Jun 1894, p. 4]

Rose, Mrs. Mrs. Rose, a black woman, attended a Colored Masonic order Hard Times Ball in Great Falls in May 1904. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Rosemand, Reverend H. R. Reverend H. R. Rosemand (or Rosemond) served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Jul 1916 to Aug 1916. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Ross, Annie L. See Wallace and Annie L. Ross Shelby.

Ross, Arthur and Sarah Ellis. Arthur Ross, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1916. He was born 7 Mar 1893 at Camden, AR, the son of Isiah and Amanda Adair Ross. On 27 Oct 1916 in Great Falls, Arthur married Sarah Ellis at St. Ann’s Rectory with the Roman Catholic Rev. Daniel J. Dineen officiating. Sarah Ellis of Newport, AR, was born in 1897 in IN, the daughter of Robert and Adeline Smith Ellis. Arthur Ross registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 5 Jun 1917. He was living with his wife, one child (Nelson) and mother (Mrs. Amanada Ross) at 617 Fourth Avenue South, and working as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel. In 1919 Arthur worked at the shoe shining parlors at 223 First Avenue South. In 1920 Arthur worked as a porter at a hotel and lived in a rented house with his family at 915 Eighth Avenue South. The Ross’ had two children in 1920: Nelson, a son born in 1916 in AR; and a daughter Lady C. born in AR in 1918. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 12, No. 7750; 1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Ross, Louis. Louis Ross, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1906-07. In Jan 1907, Ross was expelled from Great Falls and went to Helena. [GFLD 15 Jan 1907, p. 3]

Ross, Mazzepa. Mazzepa Ross, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLW 14 Jun 1894, p. 8]

Ross, Paul. Paul Ross, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 22 Mar 1917, p. 8]

Rowe, Johny. Daisy Clark, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1901-02 and worked as bartender at the Lime Kiln Club. [GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Rowles, Ed. Ed Rowles, a black man, was the trainer of Great Falls based based boxer, Black Pearl, in 1891. [GFLD 3 Dec 1891, p. 5]

Russell, Claude. Claude Russell, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1902. [GFTD 7 Sep 1902, p. 12]

Ryles, Robert. Robert Ryles, a black man, worked as a blacksmith in Smith’s blacksmith shop in Great Falls during 1901-03. [GFLD 9 Aug 1901, p. 4; GFLD 22 Jun 1903, p. 2]

Sagmeister, Lew. Leo Sagmeister, a 38 year old black man, lived in Ward 2 at in Great Fall 1920. He was born about 1882 in Belgium. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Sanders, J. W. J. W. Sanders, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and contributed money to the A. M. E. Church. [1894 AME Minutes]

Saunders, Reverend. Reverend Saunders organized the first A. M. E. Church congregation in Great Falls in mid 1890. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Saventon, Mrs. In Aug 1890, Mrs. Janes worked with Mesdames Finn, Courney, and Saventon and Messrs. Bigbee, Simms, and Ray to serve dinner at Dunn Hall.“ [GFTD 15 Aug 1890, p. 4]

Sawyer, John. John or “Kid” Sawyer, a young black man and former prize fighter, lived in Great Falls in 1906. He came to MT from Washington, D. C. in 1905 and worked at Havre and Bonner’s Ferry in a hotel. He arrived in Great Falls early in 1906. In late Jun 1906, Sawyer was adjudged by a District Court Judge to be insane and ordered committed to Warm Springs. [GFTD 1 Jul 1906, p. 4]

Scott, Frank A. Frank A. Scott, a 52 year old black man, was a porter at a railroad depot and lived at the home of Ray Walker 313 1/2 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Frank was born in MO about 1868. In 1918, Frank worked as a janitor at the Great Northern Railway passenger depot and roomed at 811 Seventh Avenue South. [1918 GFCD; GFTD 3 Nov 1918, Section 1, p. 4; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Scott, Fanny. Fanny Scott, a mixed race black woman lived in Great Falls in 1906-07. In Jan 1907, Fanny was “encouraged” by the Great Falls police court to move on to Helena. [GFLD 22 Jan 1907, p. 3]

Scott, George Edward and Estella K. George Edward Scott, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1915 working for Twin City Tailoring Company and rooming at 1111 Sixth Street South. George registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918 at age 33. He was born 16 Sep 1885, and was married to Estella K or Stella. The Scotts lived at 1111 Sixth Avenue South, and by 1916 George worked as secretary at the Ozark Club for William Williams, located at 323 1/2 Second Avenue South. From 1918-23 George and Estella lived at 1111 Sixth Avenue South while George was secretary of the Ozark Club. [WWI Draft; 1915, 1916, 1918, 1919, 1923 GFCD]

Scott, Robert. Robert Scott, a 38 year old man, was a fireman at a round house and lived at 305 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Robert was born in India about 1872. His mother was born in the Philippines and his father in India. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Seals, Reuben Lewis. Reuben or Rube Lewis Seals, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Fall on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 22 Mar 1879. He worked as sleeping car porter for the Great Northern Railway and resided 209 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls. [WWI Draft; 1918, 1919 GFCD]

Searce, Tillie. Tillie Searce, a 32 year old black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1911. She was born in MO. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners Bk 2, p. 9]]

Shannon, Gertrude. Gertrude Shannon, a 26 year old black woman, was a cook at Walker’s café and lived at the home of Ray Walker 313 1/2 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Gertrude was born in MO about 1894. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Shaw, Evelyn. Evelyn Shaw, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1920. [GFTD 23 Nov 1920, p. 9]

Shelby, Eli. Eli Shelby, a 42 year old black man, owned a saloon and lived at 202 Second Street South in Great Falls in 1900-01. He was born in Apr 1858 in TN. In 1896, Eli was proprietor of the Fashion saloon on Second Street between Second and Third Avenue South. A long time resident of Great Falls from 1899-17 he operated a saloon at 313 Second Street South and resided there. In 1918-19 Eli worked as janitor at the Great Northern Round House and lived at 1108 Fifth Avenue South. He died in Great Falls and was buried in Old Highland Cemetery 6 Jul 1919. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 14 Oct 1901, p. 8; 1896, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1910, 1918, 1919 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records]

Shelby, Loretta. Loretta Shelby, a mixed race black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFTD 13 Sep 1898, p. 6; GFLD 6 Oct 1898, p. 3]

Shelby, Wallace and Annie L. Ross. Wallace Shelby, a 24 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1897. He was born in 1873 in KY, the son of Charles and Rachael Brown Shelby. On 7 Jun 1897 in Great Falls, Wallace married Miss Annie L. Ross of Great Falls. Annie was born in 1873 at Richmond, VA, the daughter of Delia Ross. In 1899 Wallace boarded at the Park Hotel. [CC Marriage Licenses Bk 3, p. 40, No. 1266; 1899 GFCD]

Shyshard, Mr. Mr. Shyshard, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and gave money to the A. M. E. Church. [1894 AME Minutes]

Simmons, Effie. Effie Simmons, a young black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1919. [GFLD 20 Jan 1919, p. 7

Simms, Edward and Elizabeth Miller. Ed Simms came to Great Falls early in the summer of 1886, the first black American to live in the little village that grew rapidly after arrival of the railroad the next year. Over the next two decades, Ed Simms served as a remarkable leader, beloved by his black community and respected by the entire city.
Edward D. Simms was born to Richard and Lucinda Simms in Oct 1853 into the slave society of Arkansas. Freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, he worked in Texas and then joined many other young black men in the early 1870s working on steamboats on the Missouri River. In 1880, while serving as purser on the steamer “Red Cloud,” Ed Simms left the river at Fort Benton and settled in Fort Shaw. He worked there for the post trader J. H. McKnight. After moving to Great Falls, Ed returned to St. Louis, MO and on 4 Aug 1886 married Elizabeth Miller, with Rev. G. H. Shaffer A. M. E. minister officiating. Elizabeth Miller was born in St. Louis, MO in 1861. Ed brought his young bride back to frontier Montana.
This was an exciting time for the Great Falls black community, which grew rapidly with the town. The birth of the Simms’ first child, Gertrude, in Sep 1867, marked the first African American birth in Great Falls. Ed became active in Republican party politics, which with Lincoln Republican, H. P. Rolfe’s newspaper, The Leader, championed the causes of the black community. Through the party, he was hired as janitor at the Cascade County Court House, and built a house at 619 Sixth Avenue South. Ed was elected delegate to Republican city conventions for many years. In those early years, black residents of Great Falls were among the first in Montana to serve on juries, win election to public office as town constable, and have an appointed police officer. Both Ed and Elizabeth Simms helped found the African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) Church in Great Falls, forming a congregation by 1890, and building their first church in 1891. Ed was one of three trustees in the A. M. E. Church, the “heart” of the black community in the city. On occasions such as the celebration of Emancipation Proclamation Day, 1 Jan 1892, the black and white communities came together. On that evening at Cory Hall some 200 residents of Great Falls, black and white in equal numbers, joined as one to celebrate the day in 1863 when President Lincoln’s proclamation took effect: “I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves . . . are, and hencefoward shall be free.” Ed Simms, a freed man, took his usual place of honor as chairman and toastmaster for this memorable occasion. Through most of the 1890s, Ed Simms served as steward at the Rainbow Club, later called the Electric City Club. He gained the affection of the white membership, and continued on the job as his eyesight began to fail. In Oct 1894 William Morgan, J. H. Redd, and Ed Simms organized a black lodge of the I. O. O. F. (Odd Fellows) for Great Falls. The 1899 Great Falls School Census recorded four children for E. and Lizzie Sims: Robert age 3; Edward age 6; Mollie age 9; and Gertrude age 11. In 1900 Edward and Elizabeth Simms lived at 519 Sixth Avenue South with their four children and an extended household. The children were all born in Great Falls and were Gertrude born Sep 1887, Mollie born Oct 1889, Edward Garrett born 21 Aug 1893, and McKinley born 27 Apr 1895. Another child that died in childhood was Edna died 3 Oct 1892. Other household members included Clarina Miller, Elizabeth’s mother, Lucinda Sims, Edward’s mother, and Bertha Mason, a niece. In 1906 with the backing of members of the Electric City Club, Simms, now blind, opened the Electric Shoe Shining Parlors on Third Street South. The shop moved several times until locating in 1916 in the new Dunn-Brown block on Central Avenue, still one of downtown Great Falls’ most historic buildings. Elizabeth Simms passed on 30 Jul 1916 with funeral services at the A. M. E. Church and interment in Highland Cemetery. In Aug 1918, Ed retired from his business and turned his shoe shining shop over to his daughter, Mrs. Gertrude Clay. The Leader reported his retirement, “[Ed Simms] has thousands of friends throughout northern Montana who will be sorry to hear of his retirement and will miss his cheery smile and optimistic views, given from beside the little cash register, no matter what condition of weather or business might be.” Through the years, before his death in 1922, Ed Simms received exceptional coverage in the Great Falls newspapers, among them an article with his photograph in the 17 Dec 1911 Great Falls Tribune. The story details his life story as well as his love of baseball, which even as a blind man he was able to follow at Black Eagle Park. [1899 GFSC; GFTD 11 Oct 1894; GFTD 17 Dec 1911; GFTD 31 Jul 1916, p. 7; GFLD 27 Aug 1918, p. 6; CC Cemetery Records; & many other sources]

Simms, Edward Garrett. Edward Garrett Simms or Sims, a black man, was born 21 Aug 1893 at Great Falls, MT, the son of Edward and Elizabeth Simms. From 1908-1916, Edward worked as a shoe shiner at the shop of his father and boarded in the family home. Young Edward registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was unmarried and worked as a laborer his father. Edward G. Simms departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. This contingent was honored before departure by a patriotic program and banquet at A. M. E. Union Bethel Church and dancing at the Maple Leaf Club. As the contingent left, the men marched down Central Avenue following the Black Eagle Band and police and fire companies with crowds lining the avenue. The contingent carried a banner on which was inscribed ‘Fast Black Won’t Run.’ [WWI Draft; 1908-09, 1910, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1919 GFCD; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Simms, Lucinda Miller. Lucinda Miller Simms, a elderly black woman, lived in the household of her son Edward Simms at 519 Sixth Avenue South in 1900. Lucinda was born in VA 115 May 1822, married to Richard Simms, deceased, and bore ten children with only Edward and a brother Louis living in 1900. Lucinda came to MT in 1884 to live with her son Ed at Sun River. She lived there until the Simms moved to Great Falls in 1886. Lucinda visited here other son, Louis, in Little Rock, AR, several times before 1897. Lucinda died 9 May 1902 at the home of son Ed Simms in Great Falls. Her funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church with Rev. W. L. N. Baker officiating. She is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1903 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 10 May 1902, p. 4]

Simms, McKinley H. McKinley H. Simms, a son of Ed and Elizabeth Simms, was born 27 Apr 1895 in Great Falls. McKinley died 10 Jul 1926 at Atlantic City, NJ. [CC Cemetery Records]

Simons, Ernest. Ernest Simons, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 5 Apr 1881 was married to Agnes. He worked as a mortar mixer for Kraatz and Ringer and lived at 210 1/2 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Sims, Reverend David W. and Carrie C. Reverend David W. Sims (or Simms), with his wife Carrie C., served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Oct 1911 to Aug 1914. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List; 1913 GFCD]

Small, William. William or Will Small, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898 and worked as a piano player. [GFLD 4 Jul 1898, p. 4; GFTD 13 Sep 1898]

Smik or Smith, Arthur. Arthur Smik or Smith, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 7 Sep 1918. He was born 5 Apr 1885, and was unmarried. He worked as a waiter for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls on the Butte to Havre run. His nearest relative was recorded as Perl Curtis of 1115 Fifth Avenue South, a friend. [WWI Draft]

Smith, Alice. Alice Smith (aka Stella Lewis), a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1919. [GFTD 9 Jan 1919, p. 11]

Smith, Charles. Charles Smith, a 44 year old unmarried black man, lived at 217 1/2 Fourth Ave South in Great Falls and was a laborer not employed in the past four months. He was born in GA in Apr 1856. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Smith, Charles F. and Irene D. Winston. Charles F. Smith, a young black man, was an early settler in Great Falls. He was born in MO in May 1866 or 1867, the son of K. D. and Angelina G. Murphy Smith. With Ed Simms, Charles operated a restaurant in Great Falls in the early 1890s. On 19 Dec 1893 in Great Falls at the home of David and Katie Knott, Charles married Miss Irene D. Winston of Great Falls with Rev. G. H. Byas of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Irene was born in TN in 1871, with no parents indicated on the marriage license. Her mother was Mrs. Cornelia Winston, and Mrs. Katie Knott was an aunt. In 1892 Charles worked as a laborer and boarded at the Stockholm restaurant. In 1894 Charles worked as a waiter at the Rainbow Club. In 1895 Charles and Irene moved to Butte. Irene died in Butte 25 Mar 1898. Her funeral was held 26 Mar at the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls and she was interred in Old Highland Cemetery. In 1900, Charles lived in Butte Township at 124 South Arizona Street and worked as a steward. [GFLD 24 Aug 1894, p. 4; CC Marriage Licenses Book 2, No. 171; 1892, 1893 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 26 Mar 1898, p. 4; 1900 Census MT Silver Bow]

Smith, Della. Della Smith, a young black woman, was born in 1894 and lived in Great Falls in 1917-19 with her presumed sister, Ella Smith. [GFLD 12 May 1917, p. 3; GFTD 18 Aug 1919, p. 8]

Smith, Dolly. Dolly Smith, a black woman, lived on the lower South side of Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 17 Sep 1901, p. 5]

Smith, Ella. Ella Smith, a young black woman, was born in 1901 and lived in Great Falls in 1919 with her presumed sister, Della Smith. [GFTD 18 Aug 1919, p. 8]

Smith Ernest. Ernest Smith, a 35 year old black man, worked as a brick layer and lived on Second Street South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Mar 1865 in SC. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Smith, F. P. F. P. Smith, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1994. [GFLD 24 Oct 1894, p. 4]

Smith, Frank. Frank Smith, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1908 with his presumed sister, Ella Smith. [GFTD 28 Jun 1908]

Smith, Rev. George and Mary. Reverend George Smith, a 32 year old black man, served as preacher at the black Baptist Church and lived with his wife Mary at 1000 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Missouri in Aug 1867. His wife Mary was born in May 1868 in KY. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Smith, George. George Smith, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFTD 12 May 1895; GFLD 16 May 1895, p. 6]

Smith, George E. and Charlotte Glovina Bigbee Connell. George E. Smith, a black man, was born in 1869 in KY, the son of George W. and Christy Clements Smith. On 6 Jan 1903 at Great Falls, George married Glovina Bigbee Connell of Great Falls. She was born in 1870 (19 Dec 1861 by her obituary) in Springfield, TN, the daughter of John and Elizabeth Thompson Bigbee. Glovina came to Fort Benton by steamboat in the late 1880s with here sons. In 1910 George E. Smith, age 42 years old, worked as a general laborer and lived with his wife Vivian (Glovina), who worked as a maid, and two step sons, John and Henry Connell, at 715 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls. In 1920 George E. Smith, a 53 year old mixed race black man, owned a home at 410 Ninth Street South in Ward 2, lived there with his family, and worked as a laborer at the Great Northern depot. He was born about 1867 in KY [sic]. Glovina’s first marriage was to Marshall Connell, and they had three sons Omar, John, and Henry. In 1919, the Smiths resided at 715 Seventh Avenue South. By 1935 George and Glovina lived at 415 Ninth Avenue South, and George worked as a janitor for the Great Northern Railway. George died in 1937. Glovina died 25 Jun 1953 in Great Falls at the age of 91. She died at her home 415 Ninth Avenue South after a brief illness. She was buried at Highland Cemetery and was survived by two sons, by her first marriage, John and Henry Connell, both of Great Falls; a daughter Mrs. Sadie Mimms, of Guthrie, KY; a brother Ed Bigbee, of Great Falls; six grandchildren; and 8 grandchildren. [CC Marriage Licenses Bk 4, p. 615, No. 2609; 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1870, 1880 Census TN; 1919, 1935, 1946, 1949 GFCD; GFTD 26 Jun 1953]

Smith, Grace. Miss Grace Smith, a young black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1907. In May 1907, Grace with Rev. & Mrs. Redd and three others from the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls were delegates to the Ministers’ Institute and young people’s meeting of Montana. [GFLD 13 May 1907, p. 3]

Smith, Hasel. Hasel or Hazel Smith, a black woman, live in Great Falls in 1904. [GFLD 18 Mar 1904, p. 5]

Smith, Henry A. and Margaret. Henry Smith, a black man, worked as a laborer for Nick Baatz Soda and Mineral Water Company and lived with his wife Margaret at 400 Third Avenue South in Great Falls in 1919. He and his brother Isom were siblings of Susan B. Smith McCracken. [GFTD 18 Aug 1919, p. 8; 1919, 1923 City Directories]

Smith, Ira. Ira Smith, a black man, was a pallbearer at the A. M. E. funeral of Alfred Johnson in Great Falls Apr 1908. This appears to be a different Ira Smith than the one born in 1896. [GFTD 20 Apr 1908, p. 8]

Smith, Ira. Ira Smith, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 7 Jan 1896 at Leavenworth, KS, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. His unnamed mother was living. [WWI Draft]

Smith, Isham and Mary E.. Isham or Isom Smith, a black man, worked as a janitor in Great Falls in 1920 and lived with his wife in Ward 1 at his place of work No. 4, Second Street North. Isham was born about 1865 in MO, and his wife Mary was born in 1874 in MO. Isom and his brother Henry were siblings of Susan B. Smith McCracken. In 1914 Isom roomed at 605 Ninth Avenue South at the home of Joseph and Susan McCracken. [1914, 1923 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 18 Sep 1924]

Smith, Jesse and Mary. Jesse Smith, a 31 year old man, worked as a porter at the post office and lived with his wife Mary at 702 Eighth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1910. Jesse was born about 1879 in TX, and had been previously married. Mary [NFI] was born in TN about 1882, and also had been previously married and had one child apparently from the previous marriage. Jesse probably came to Great Falls in 1901, and in Oct that year, he testified as witness in a court case. Jesse and Mary were married in 1904. Jesse was a member of the black Masonic Lodge. In 1913 Jesse worked as a janitor and lived at the rear of 512 Fifth Avenue South with no mention of Mary. [GFLD 14 Oct 1901, p. 8; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co; 1913 GFCD]

Smith, Jessie. Jessie Smith, a 59 year old black man, was a laborer in a cook house and lived at the home of a Polish immigrant Mary Senko 166 First Avenue South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Jessie was born in TX about 1861 and was divorced. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Smith, Jessie. Jessie Smith, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1892. [GFLD 7 Jun 1892, p. 5]

Smith, Joseph. Joseph Smith, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 26 Jun 1872 at Memphis, TN, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Smith, Mary. Mary Smith, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 27 Oct 1917, p. 6]

Smith, Mattie. Mattie Smith, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1909. [GFLD 2 Jul 1909, p. 6]

Smith, May. May Smith, a black woman, lived on Rosebud Alley on the lower South Side of Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 30 Sep 1901, p. 4]

Smith, Moses. Moses Smith, a black man, worked as carpenter and poultry breeder and resided at the south end of Ninth Street, about a mile from the city limits in 1901-03. [GFLD 24 Oct 1901, p. 4; 1901, 1903 GFCD]

Smith, Myrtle. Myrtle Smith, a two and a half year old black child and daughter of Peter F. Smith, was born in 1893 and died 4 Sep 1895 in Great Falls of accidental poisoning. Her funeral was conducted at the A. M. E. Church, and she is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 5 Sep 1895]

Smith, Peter F. Peter F. Smith, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1895-1900. He was the father of 2 1/2 year old Myrtle Smith, a child who died of accidental poisoning. [GFLD 5 Sep 1895; GFLD 26 Jan 1900, p. 4]

Smith, Rose. Rose Smith, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1920. [GFTD 23 Nov 1920, p. 9]

Smith, Samuel David. Samuel David Smith, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 29 Apr 1890 at Prais, KY, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Snead, Thelma. See Edward and Thelma Van Dyke Snead Wood.

Smith, Sam. Sam Smith, a black man, came from Helena to live in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 7 Sep 1897, p. 4]

Smith, W. H. W. H. Smith, a black man, came to Great Falls from Billings in 1900. [GFLD 18 Apr 1900, p. 3; GFLD 19 Apr 1900, p. 3]

Snead, Thelma. See Edward and Thelma Van Dyke Snead Woods.

Sobbington, Henry and Patty Odom. Henry Sobbinton, a mixed race black man, lived in Utica MT in 1889. He was born 1851 at Saline City, MO. On 18 Nov 1889 in Great Falls, Henry married Miss Patty Odom of Great Falls. Patty, a mixed race black woman, was born in 1868 at Nashville, TN, with parents unknown. Henry and Patty were married by Methodist minister Rev. William Coomb. [CC Marriage Licenses No. 96]

Sparks, Thomas Horatio. Lee Moore, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Oct 1894 at Jefferson, TX, and was unmarried. He worked as a dining car cook for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Spearman, F. E. F. E. Spearman, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFTD 3 Nov 1918, Section 1, p. 4]

Spencer, William. See Bernard Malone.

St. Clair, William and Annie Williams. William St. Clair, a black man, lived in Choteau in 1891. He was born in 1855 in MO, the son of Daniel St. Clair. On 3 Aug 1891 at Great Falls, William married Annie Williams of Great Falls. Annie was born in NC in 1876, the daughter of William E. and Frances Falkener Williams. [CC Marriage Licenses 1891 No. 284]

“Starlight.” “Starlight,” a black man, was a boxer from the West side of Great Falls. [GFLD 14 Oct 1904, p. 7]

Stead, John. John Stead, a 24 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 9 Sep 1917, p. 16]

Stein, Georgia. Georgia Stein, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1903. [GFLD 30 Jan 1903, p. 5]

Stephen, Eva. Eva Stephen, a 36 year old black woman, was working as a domestic doing house work and lived in Ward 2 at 410 1/2 Fourth Street South in Great Falls in 1920. She was born about 1884 in MO. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Stevenson, Mamie. Mamie Stevenson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFTD 29 Sep 1895, p. 6]

Steward, James. James steward, a 32 year old black man, worked as a laborer and lived in Ward 2 in the household of Ed and Mattie Tiff at 608 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1888 in MO and was unmarried. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Stewart, Harry Mahoney. Harry Mahoney Stewart, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Dec 1893 at Fulton, KY, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. His address was listed as Fulton, KY. [WWI Draft]

Stewart, James. James Stewart, a black man, was a bootblack with a stand on Central Avenue in 1901. [GFLD 28 Sep 1901, p. 5]

Stewart, James Edward and Susie Smith. James Edward Stewart, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1915. He was born in MO in 1887, the son of Lewis and Lucy Williams Stewart. On 19 Aug 1915 in Great Falls, James married Susie Smith. She was born in 1893 in PA, the daughter of Charlie and Mattie McGoins Smith. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 6980]

Stewart, Lee. Lee Stewart, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 8 Feb 1894 at Little Rock, AR and was married with one child. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Stewart, Lillian. Lillian Stewart, a 44 year old mixed race black woman, lived in Black Eagle in 1920 and worked in Great Falls as a barber. She was born about 1876 in KY and was a widow. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD]

Stewart, Mrs. S. Mrs. S. Stewart, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918. [GFLD 5 Sep 1918, p. 1]

Stewart, William S. and Rosie Lee Graham. William S. Stewart, a 44 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1913. He was born in 1869 in TX, the son of Isaac Racheal Tillman Stewart. William had been previously married. On 20 Jan 1913 in Great Falls, William married Rosie Lee Graham in Great Falls, at the home of the bride with Rev. David W. Sims of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Rosie was born about 1883 in TN, the daughter of Rev. and Lizzie Ventri Lee. Mrs. Rosie Steward, a black woman, served as witness at the marriage of James Carter and Ella Hunt in Great Falls in 1916. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 8, No. 5562; CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7385]

Stokes, Harry D. and Mollie C. Thompson. Harry D. or H. D. Stokes, a black man, was an early and active member of the black community in Great Falls. He was born about 1847 and earlier had served in Company I of the 10th U. S. Cavalry. In 1896 he worked as a porter at the Park Hotel and resided at 303 Fourth Avenue South with his wife Mollie who worked as a cook. Mollie was born about 1870 in KY, the daughter of George and Eliza Thompson. They had a daughter Stella Ford Johnson, born about 1888 in TX. In the 1899 Great Falls School Census, Stella age 10 and Louis age 7 were recorded. In 1899 Harry was a member of the black Masonic Sunset Lodge No. 14, A.M. & F.M. In 1901 Mrs. Stokes adopted a 10 year old youngster, Lewis Moore. On the night of 3 Apr 1902, Harry confronted a neighbor, William Haywood, and provoked a fight. This incident led to Harry’s death. Haywood, who had been ill and bed-ridden for several days, defended himself by striking Stokes over the head three times with a stove poker. Stokes later 3 Apr died of a crushed skull from the blows. Haywood was charged with murder, tried and acquitted by a jury 29 Apr 1902. Harry was buried 6 Apr 1902 at Old Highland Cemetery. In Sep 1905 Harry’s grave was marked by a white marble government soldier’s headstone. In 1904 Mollie gave up Lewis Moore for adoption by Mr. and Mrs. Moses Williams. See Lewis Moore. See also William B. and Mollie Thompson Stokes Williams for Mollie’s second marriage. [1896 GFCD; 1899 GFSC; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 4 Apr 1902, p. 6; GFTD 23 Apr 1902, p. 8; GFTD 29 Apr 1902, p. 8; GFTD 30 Apr 1902, p. 8; CC Reg Deaths; GFLD 23 Aug 1904, p. 5; GFLD 8 Sep 1905, p. 5]

Stucks, Mattie. Mattie Stucks, a 40 year old black woman and widow, worked as a laundry woman and lived with her daughter Stella and a boarder Louise Moore at 313 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1900. She was born in KY in Apr 1860. She married in 1886 and had one daughter, Stella, born Mar 1888 in KY. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Stull, John. See Andrew Person.

Summers, Ella. See Mrs. Ella Lockhart.

Talley, Elbert. Elbert Talley, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 21 Apr 1885. He worked as a section hand for the Milwaukee Railway in Great Falls. Dilsey Rice was recorded as closest relative, possibly in SC. [WWI Draft]

Tanney, Iva May. Iva May Tanney, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1918 and was a member of the choir of the A. M. E. Church. [GFLD 26 Feb 1918, p. 10]

Taylor, Albert. Albert Taylor, a 20 year black man, lived in the household of his step-father, James McCracken and his mother Melvina. [1930 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Taylor, Carrie. Carrie Taylor, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 21 Jul 1898, p. 4]

Taylor, John A. and Gertrude (Fannie) Wilson. John A. Taylor, a black man, lived in Great Falls for more than 50 years. He was born in VA in 1867, the son of Benjamin and Emma Murphy Taylor. He came to Great Falls about 1902 with his wife Quiney. After her death in 1918 on 14 Oct 1919 in Great Falls, John married Fannie Wilson Alexander of Thermopolis WY, with Rev. A. W. Johnson of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Gertrude was born in 14 Jan 1881 at Red Oak, IA, the daughter of James and Belle Gates Wilson. In 1920 John worked as a porter in a hotel and the Taylors owned their home and lived at 708 Eighth Avenue South with four boarders. Gertrude was active in the Ladies Aid and other A. M. E. Church activities. In 1930 John and Gertrude lived in their home that was valued at $5,000. When the Rainbow Hotel was built, John became head porter, a position he held until ill health forced his retirement in 1942. He died 25 Dec 1952. His funeral was conducted at O’Connor’s chapel 29 Dec with Rev. Pendarvis of the A. M. E. Church officiating. He is buried at Highland Cemetery. John was survived by his wife Gertrude; one daughter, Fay Nicholas of Seattle; two sisters, Mrs. Emma Watts of Duluth, MN and Mrs. Rideout of Youngstown, OH; a nephew; and a niece. Gertrude Taylor died 29 Nov 1964 in Great Falls at age 83. Gertrude came to Great Falls from St. Pual about 1914. She was employed by General Mills for several years demonstrating pancake mix throughout the state, later worked at Malmstrom AFB, and was employed by the Paris until forced to retire last year by poor health. Gertrude was active in the Seventh-day Adventist Church and it’s women’s choir and Dorcas Welfare Society. Gertrude’s funeral was held 2 Dec at O’Connor’s chapel, Elder A. M. Matar of the Seventh-day Adventist Church officiating. She was buried at Highland Cemetery. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 16, No. 9813; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 26 Dec 1952, p. 8; GFLD 29 Dec 1952, p. 2; GFTD 30 Nov 1964, p. 8; GFTD 1 Dec 1918, p. 9; CC Cemetery Records]

Taylor, John A. and Quincy Byrum Smith. John A. Taylor, a 41 year old black man, worked as an expressman and lived with his wife Quiney or Quincy in the household of Jesse Smith at 702 Eighth Avenue South. John was born at Gainesville, VA 10 Nov 1867. He came to Great Falls about 1902 and resided there for fifty years. He first worked for the Great Northern Railway. On 8 Aug 1904, John, who was previously married and divorced, married Qunicy or Quiney Byrum Smith. Quiney was born 15 Apr 1879in KS, the daughter or Harry and Belle Kelly Byrum. Quincy also had been previously married, to Harry Smith, and divorced. In 1910 Quincy worked as a cook. By 1913 John worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel, and he and Quiney lived at 611 Eighth Avenue South. The Taylors were active members of the A. M. E. Church, and in 1917 John served on the financial board of the church. Quiney died 4 Mar 1918 at the family home in Great Falls at age 39. Her funeral was held at O’Connors chapel 6 Mar with services conducted by Rev. George Horsey, A. M. E. Church. She was buried at Highland Cemetery. John died in 1952. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co; 1913, 1918 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 27 Jan 1917, p. 6; GFLD 6 Mar 1918, p. 3; GFLD 5 Mar 1918, p. 6; GFLD 26 Dec 1952, p. 8; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 2970]

Smith, Harry and Quincy Byrum. Harry Smith, a black man, married Quincy Byrum in Anaconda in 1897. By 1904, the couple had moved to Great Falls. In May 1904 Quincy secured a divorce from Harry on grounds of extreme cruelty. In Aug 1904 Quincy remarried John A. Taylor. See John A. and Quincy Byrum Smith Taylor. [GFLD 23 May 1904, p. 5]

Taylor, Mr. Mr. [NFI] Taylor, a black man, worked as a porter at the Mint saloon in Great Falls in 1909. [GFTD 17 Sep 1909, p. 10]

Taylor, John T and Hestor. John T. Taylor, a black man worked in Great Falls as a porter for the Great Northern Railway in 1909 and lived at Fourth Alley South with his wife Hestor. [GTD 8 Dec 1909, p. 7]

Taylor, Washington G. Washington T. or G. Taylor, a black man, was an early resident of Great Falls. In 1894 he contributed to the A. M. E. Church. In 1901 Washington worked as a porter for W. D. B. Carpenter and roomed at 607 Eighth Avenue South. By 1903 Washington T. Taylor worked as a laborer and roomed at 609 Eighth Avenue South. In Aug 1904 Washington and John D. Gainey were selected to represent Great Falls Afro-Americans at a National Afro-American council in St. Louis 6-8 Sep. In 1910 Washington Taylor, a 65 year old black man, worked as a laborer and lived with the John Taylor family at 702 Eighth Avenue South. [1901, 1903 GFCD; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1894 AME Minutes; GFLD 26 Aug 1904, p. 5]

Thomas, Charles. Thomas, Charles. Charles Thomas, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Thomas, George and Mollie S. McQuenten Jones. George Thomas was a black man living in Great Falls in 1901, working at McDonald Café. He was born in 1862 in KY, the son of George Thomas. On 17 Sep 1902, George Thomas married Mollie Jones in Great Falls. Mollie S. Jones was a black woman working as a domestic servant and living at 219 Second Street South in Great Falls. She was born in 1867 in KY, the daughter of Alfred and Sarah McQuerten. Mollie previously had been married and divorced. In 1904-05 George worked as a porter at the Great Falls Hotel and resided at the rear of 314 Second Street South. In 1906 the same George Thomas moved to St. Paul, MN. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 4, p. 541, No. 2535; 1901-02, 1904-05, 1906 GFCD; GFLD 21 Aug 1902, p. 5]

Thomas, Laura. Laura Thomas, a 35 year old black woman, was buried 20 Jul 1905 at Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Cemetery Records]

Thompson, Bessie. Bessie Thompson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 12 Nov 1916]

Thompson, Charles and Maggie. Charles Thompson, a 58 year old black man, worked as a day laborer and lived in the Great Falls township with his family. Charles was born in Feb 1842 in VA. His wife Maggie was born in Oct 1847 in VA. They were married in 1870 and had one child, a son, William, living with them. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Thompson, Hubert and Carrie Gumm. Hubert Gumm, a 34 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1912. He was born about 1878 in Washington, D. C., the son of Moses and Judidah Pope Thompson. On 9 Oct 1912 at Great Falls Hubert married Miss Carrie Gumm of Great Falls. Carrie was born about 1885 in NE, the daughter of William and Nellie Hill Gumm at the A. M. E. Church parsonage, Rev. David W. Sims officiating. [DD Marriage Licenses Book 8, No. 5398]

Thompson, James. James Thompson, a 99 year old black man, lived in Black Eagle at the county poor farm in 1920. He was born about 1821 in AL. In 1913 James boarded at 508 Third Street South. James was an inmate in the poor farm from 1915-20. [1913, 1915 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Thompson, James. James Thompson, a black man, died in Great Falls 15 Jul 1922 and was buried in the county plot at Highland Cemetery. He was about 65 years of age. [CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 14 Aug 1917, p. 8]

Thompson, John. John Thompson, a black man lived in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 26 Aug 1897, p. 4]

Thompson, Louis. Louis or Lewis Thompson, an 18 year old black man, worked as a bootblack lived in Great Falls in 1907-08. [GFLD 14 Dec 1907, p. 4; GFTD 17 Jun 1908; GFTD 28 Jun 1908]

Thompson, “Patsy.” “Patsy” Thompson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 17 Nov 1916]

Thompson, Thomas. Thomas or Tom Thompson, a 60 year old black man, worked as a cook and lived at 926 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls in 1915-16. [GFTD 13 Nov 1916; 1915 GFCD]

Thompson, William. William Thompson, a 27 year old unmarried black man, worked as a day laborer and lived with his parents in the Great Falls township in 1900. William was born in Dec 1872 in VA. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Thompson, William and Lillian M. Carmon. William Thompson, a black man, worked as a porter and resided at the rear of 617 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1913. He was born about 1869 in KS, the son of Joe and Annie Woods Thomson. He was previously married and divorced. On 9 Dec 1913 in Great Falls, William married Lillian M. Carmon of Great Falls. Lillian was born about 1881 in FL, the daughter of Andrew J. and Jennie Carmon. She had been previously married and divorced. [DD Marriage Licenses Book 9, No. 6055; 1913 GFCD]

Thoren, Charles. Charles Thoren or Thorne, a black man, worked as a laborer and lived in Great Falls in 1904 In Jun 1904, he was ordered to leave town after several vagrancy offenses. [GFLD 20 Jun 1904, p. 2]

Thorne, Laura. Laura Thorne, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLW 14 Jun 1894, p. 8; GFLD 9 Sep 1894, p. 4]

Thornton, C. C. Thornton, a 40 year old black man, worked as a porter in a hotel and boarded at the home of John Taylor at 708 Eighth Avenue South. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Thornton, Edward Harvey. Ed Harvey Thornton, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918 at age 38. He was born 27 Dec 1879. He worked as a porter at the Rainbow Hotel and lived at 122 Third Street South. His nearest relative was recorded as Mrs. Martha Brown of 1727 East La Fayette, Phoenix, AZ. In 1918-19 Edward worked as a porter at the Rainbow and resided at 812 Eighth Avenue South. [WWI Draft; 1918 GFCD]

Thornton, Jerry. Jerry Thornton, familiarly known as Uncle Jerry, a black man was an early settler in Great Falls. He did odd jobs as a porter and laborer in Great Falls during the period 1893-95. Jerry died 4 Apr 1895 at the county poor house. His funeral was held at McBratney’s undertaking rooms with Rev. Dyas of the A. M. E. Church officiating. [1893 GFCD; GFLD 4 Apr 1895; GFTD 5 Apr 1895]

Tiff, Edward E. and Mattie. Edward E. Smith, a 57 year old black man, worked for the city and lived with his family in Ward 2 at 608 Third Street South in Great Falls in 1920. He was born about 1863 in IA. His wife Mattie was born about 1880 in PA. Their four grown children lived with the in 1920: Ella age 27; Susie age 25; and Dorothy 23. Edward Tiff died 25 Dec 1922 in Great Falls and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. Mattie Tiff died 15 Jun 1934 in Great Falls at the age of 58 years. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1923 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records]

Tolbert, William H. Mrs. William H. and Mrs. Tolbert, a black couple attended the Colored Masonic order Hard Times Ball in Great Falls 9 May 1904. Mr. Tolbert was a Mason and was a waiter at The Gerald Cafe. [GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2]

Tolliver, Alick. Alick Tolliver, a 36 year old black man, was a porter at a barbershop and lived at the home of Ray Walker 313 1/2 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Alick was born in MN about 1884. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Tolliver, Reverend W. J. Reverend W. J. Tolliver served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Sep 1910 to Aug 1911. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Tolson, Reverend G. W. Reverend G. W. Tolson served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Sep 1897 to Aug 1900. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Trigg, John. John Trigg, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 18 Feb 1890 at Caseville, KY, and was married. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Trigg, Orben Tays. Orben Tays Trigg, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Jun 1895 at Marshall, MO, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Tucker, Bessie. Bessie Tucker, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1893. [GFLD 20 Jul 1893, p. 4]

Tucker, Cecile C. Knott Cora Cecile Knott, the daughter of David and Katie Knott, was born 2 Dec [or 29 Dec] 1892 in Great Falls, soon after her parents arrived in the city. She entered Longfellow school in 1899 and graduated from the Latin course at Great Falls High School in 1911. The Roundup indicated that Cecile intended to enter Wilberforce College. She married Mr. Tucker and lived in Great Falls until her death 6 Apr 1966. She worked many years for the Paris Dry Goods Store and was active in the Republican Party. Cecile was a member of the Christian Science Church for 45 years and served as a practitioner for the church for ten years. Her funeral was held at the Chapel of Chimes Funeral Home with a Christian Science reader officiating. She is buried at Highland Cemetery. She was survived by sisters Mrs. Irene Marshall, Detroit, and Mrs. Odessa Mash, Spokane; and a brother, William Knott of Great Falls. See also David A. and Katie Winston Knott. [GFTD 19 Jun 1961; GFHS The Roundup, Fourth Year, Number Three, June 1911, p. 33; 1910 MT Cascade County Census; GFTD 7 Apr 1966, p. 12]

Turner, Dan. Dan Turner, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1891. [GFTD 2 Jan 1891]

Turner, David. David (Dave) Turner, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1892-93. [GFLD 29 Nov 1892, p. 8; GFKD 13 Feb 1893, p. 1]

Turner, Ida. Ida Turner, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1901. [GFTD 17 Jan 1901, p. 10]

Turner, Walker. Walker Turner, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 30 Oct 1917, p. 8]

Turner, Will B. Will B. Turner, a young black man, lived in Great Falls in 1897-98. He was born in 1878. In 1898 Will was convicted of grand larceny and sent to the state Penitentiary. After serving his sentence, Will moved to Anaconda. [GFLD 2 Dec 1898, p. 3; GFLD 3 Mar 1900, p. 4; GFLD 21 Mar, p. 3; GFLD 21 Mar 1900, p. 3]

Underwood, Henry. Henry Underwood, a young black man, worked as a barber and lived in Great Falls in 1897. [GFTD 29 Dec 1897, p. 4]

Usher, Mr. Mr. Usher, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1892. [GFTD 28 Jun 1892]

Van Dyke, Thelma. See Edward and Thelma Van Dyke Snead Wood.

Vaughan, E. R. E. R. Vaughan, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and contributed to the A. M. E. Church. [1894 AME Minutes]

Vaughn, Hugh George. Hugh George Vaughn, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 7 Sep 1918. He was born 14 Jun 1876. He worked as a waiter for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. Sarah Vaughn, a sister, of Nashville, TN was recorded as nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

Vaughn, Lettie. Lettie Vaughn, a black woman, lived on the south side of Great Falls in 1908. [GFLD 23 May 1908, p. 5]

Vough, H. W. H. W. Vough, a 43 year old mixed race black man, was working as a railway porter in 1920 and boarded in Ward 2 at 1118 Fifth Avenue South. H. W. was born about 1877 in TN. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Wagner, Reverend A. Reverend A. Wagner served as pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls Sep 1896 to Aug 1897. [A. M. E. Great Falls Pastor List]

Waldon, A. T. A. T. Waldon, a black man, was proprietor of the Lime Kiln “Colored Club” in 1901. [GFLD 16 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Waldorf, M. C. M. C. Waldorf, a 23 year old black woman, live in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 14 Aug 1917, p. 8]

Walker, Charles. Charles Walker, known as the Hot Tamale Man, a mixed race young black man, worked as a hired man on a farm and lived on the Great Falls Road. He was born in AR in 1882. In 1905 Charles was self-employed, selling hot tamales about the streets of Great Falls during the winter. In 1913 Charles was a gardener living in the University addition of Great Falls. [GFLD 27 Oct 1905, p. 5; 1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1913 GFCD]

Walker, Ray Herbert and Alice Palmer Owens. Ray Herbert Walker, a 34 year old black man, was proprietor of a Café and lived with his family at 313 1/2 Third Street South in Ward 2 of Great Falls in 1920. Ray was born 13 Jun 1885 Deadwood, Dakota Territory. His wife, Alice, was born 5 Nov 1875 at Bismarck, Dakota Territory. Ray and Alice came to Great Falls about 1911. Their children were Ray, born in Great Falls in 1913, and Alice, born in Great Falls in 1915. In 1915 Ray Walker with Ward D. Cole managed a billiard hall at 315 Second Avenue South. By 1916 Ray was managing the black nightclub, the Manhattan Club. On 29 Jul 1918, Ray Walker married Alice Palmer Owens in Great Falls. Ray had been previously married, apparently to the same Alice. Alice Palmer Owens was born in 1878 at Bismarck D.T., the daughter of William T. and Alice Johnson Palmer. Ray Walker registered for the World War I Draft 12 Sep 1918 in Great Falls. He was manager of a Club at 313 Third Street South and resided there with his wife. Ray Walker assisted the drill instructors with the “colored home guard” formed in Great Falls in Aug 1918. In addition, he closed his club each evening to encourage the young men to go out for drills of the home guard. The Walkers had four boarders in their home in 1920. In 1931 Ray and Alice lived at 312 Fifth Avenue south and operated the Walker tea room at 319 Fifth avenue south. In Feb 1931 Ray entered the state tuberculosis sanitarium at Galen. Ray Walker died in the sanitarium 9 Jun 1931 at age 46. Funeral services were held at O’Connor chapel with Rev. C. B. Clements of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Ray was buried at Highland Cemetery. Alice passed on 27 Jul 1946 in Great Falls at age 70. Funeral services were conducted 30 Jul at O’Connor’s chapel with Rev. R. A. Washington of the A. M. E. Church officiating. She was buried in Highland Cemetery. Alice was survived by two sisters, Mrs. Pearl Moore of Helena; and Mrs. Page Anderson, Azusa, CA; one brother, Arthur Palmer of Great Falls; several nieces and nephews. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12; GFLD 11 Sep 1917, p. 3; 1915 GFCD; GFLD 30 Jul 1918, p. 8; CC Marriage Licenses Book 14, No. 9111; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records; GFTD 13 Jun 1931, p. 13; GFTD 29 Jul 1946, p. 4; GFTD 30 Jul 1946, p. 6]

Wallace, W. E. W. E. Wallace, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1899-1900. [GFLD 4 Jan 1900, p. 4]

Walton, Albert J. and Anna. Albert or Hal J. Walton, a 39 year old black man, worked as a brick molder and lived with his wife at 1009 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in TN in Feb 1861. His wife Anna or Annie was born in 1871 in TX. The Waltons were married in 1898 and had one child, Mamie born in TX in Nov 1888. In 1901-03, Albert was proprietor of the Lime Kiln Club, located at 212 Third Avenue South, and the family lived at 1016 Fourth Avenue South. In May 1904 Anna Walton attended a Colored Masonic Hard Times Ball in Great Falls. In 1906 Mrs. Al Walton and her daughter moved from Great Falls to Helena. [1899 GFSC; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1901, 1903 GFCD; GFLD 27 Jul 1901, p. 8; GFLD 10 May 1904, p. 2; MTPD 22 Jun 1906, p. 4]]

Walton, Miss Henry May. See Gladstone and Henry May Walton Carman.

Ward, James. James Ward, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1901. [GFLD 5 Dec 1901, p. 4]

Ware, William. William Ware, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 15 Dec 1896 at England, AR, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls, and lived at the Great Northern Boarding Camp. [WWI Draft]

Warren, Steve. Steve Warren, a black man, was active in the “Colored Democratic quartet” during the political campaign in Great Falls in 1892. [GFTD 7 Sep 1892]

Washington, Mr. Mr. Washington, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1911. He formerly was a newspaperman in OK and prominent in politics in that state. [MTPD 26 May 1911, p. 4]

Watts, James. James Watts, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born May 1898. He worked as a farmer for Walker Woods at Belt. Willman Watts of Fayetteville, NC was recorded as nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

Way, Charles. Charles Way, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1895. [GFLW 9 May 1895, p. 8]

Weaver, Dan. Dan Weaver, a black man, worked as a bootblack and porter in Great Falls in 1908. [GFTD 13 Jun 1908; GFTD 1 Jul 1908; GFTD 15 Sep 1908, p. 5]

Webb, J. M. J. M. Webb, a black man, worked as a barber in the shop of J. T. Dowell and roomed at 15 Third Street South in Great Falls. He moved to Seattle and in 1904 became Elder J. M. Webb, evangelist of the Church of God. Elder Webb toured with a lecture that attempted to prove that Christ was an African American. [1901 GFCD; GFTD 29 Aug 1904, p. 7]

Welch, Earl. Earl Welch, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 11 Sep 1896 at Parson, KS, and was unmarried. He worked as a laborer at the Freight House for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls. [WWI Draft]

Welford, Harry. Harry Welford, a 39 year old black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 11 Sep 1918. He was born 28 Apr 1879. He worked as a bartender for William Jackson at 122 Third Street South in Great Falls. Delia Scott of Kansas City, MO, was recorded as nearest relative. Welford’s left arm was disabled.[WWI Draft]

Wells, Arthur E. and Grace M. Johnson Allen. Arthur E. Wells, a 27 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1913. He was born in 1886 in NE, the son of William H. and Joseph [sic] Hancock Wells. On 21 Dec 1913 in Great Falls, Arthur married Grace M. Allen of Butte with Rev. D. W. Sims of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Grace was born in 1893 in GA, the daughter of Henry Johnson. She had been previously married and divorced. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 9, No. 6082]

Wells, John and Dollie Stout. John or Johnny Wells, a 27 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1901-02. John was born in 1875 in Canada, the son of William Wells. John was working as a porter and was a member of the black Lime Kiln Club, and testified in a court case in Oct 1901. On 6 Feb 1902 in Great Falls, John married Dollie Stout of Great Falls. Dollie, a white woman, born in 1876, was the daughter of William Stout. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 4, p. 397, No. 2391; GFLD 19 Sep 1901, p. 8; GFLD 15 Oct 1901, p. 8]

Welsh, Eddie. Eddie Welsh, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 15 Apr 1890 at Atlanta, GA, and was married. He worked as a laborer for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls and lived at the Great Northern Boarding Camp. Eddie Welsh, a young black man, departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [WWI Draft; GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

White, Ada Frances (Ferguson). Ada Frances Ferguson, the daughter of Laura and John Ferguson was born in Great Falls in the 1890s. By 1919, Frances was married to Henry White, a trucker working for the Great Northern Railway. She worked as a maid at the Vendome Hotel. The Whites had two children, George and Katherine, and after Frances’ death in 1926, the children lived with their grandmother Mrs. Laura Ferguson at 1214 7th Avenue South. [Great Falls Yesterday pp. 357-58; GFCD 1919]

White, Blanche. Blanche White, a 22 year old black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1911. Blanche was born 1889 in CA. [CC Jail Register of Prisoners Bk 2, p. 9]

White, George. George White, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 8 Dec 1917, p. 5]

White, Henry and Ada Frances Ferguson. Henry White, a black man lived in Great Falls in 1907 and working as a trucker for the Great Northern Railroad. He was born in 1879 in KY, the son of George and Carolina Jackson White. On 4 Jul 1907 in Great Falls, Henry married Ada Frances Ferguson of Great Falls with Rev. J. H. C. Redd of the A. M. E. Church officiating. Ada was born in 1890 in Great Falls, the daughter of John and Laura Collins Ferguson. In 1919 Ada worked as a maid at the Vendome Hotel. In this census he was reported as born about 2875 in TN. The Whites had one child, George, born in 1916. Ada Frances remarried William Kirby and they had a daughter, Katherine. In the 1920 census, Henry lived at 1214 Seventh Avenue South and was divorced. His son George age 4 was living with his grandmother, Laura Ferguson. Frances died in 1926, and the children lived with their grandmother Mrs. Laura Ferguson at 1214 7th Avenue South. [Great Falls Yesterday pp. 357-58; 1919 GFCD; CC Marriage Licenses Book 6 NO. 3618; 1910, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

White, Isaac. Isaac White, a 43 year old unmarried black man, lived at 217 1/2 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born Mar 1857 in NC and worked as a porter. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

White, James. James White, a 31 year old black man, lived at 217 1/2 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. He was a widower, born Mar 1869 in Old Mexico and emigrated to the U.S. in 1872. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

White, Joseph and Blanche Huddleson. Joseph White, a 34 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1911. He was born in 1877 in VA, the son of William and Sallie Hill White. On 7 Mar 1911 in Great Falls, Joseph married Blanche Huddleson of Great Falls. Blanche was born 1890 in CA, the daughter of John and Lucie Ensley Huddleson. By Nov 1911, Joseph and Blanche were divorced. Blanche then married Nick Tirogalas 13 Nov 1911. Tirogalas shot Joseph White on night of 23 Dec 1911 in the rooming house in which they all lived. Joseph White died 24 Dec 1911 in Great Falls and was buried 2 Jan 1912 in Old Highland Cemetery. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 7, No. 4753; GFTD 24 Dec 1911, p. 3; GFTD 25 Dec 1911, p. 7; 1913 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records]

White, Joseph. Joseph White, a black man, lived in Great Falls 1910-11. He was born in 1877 in MD. Joseph was shot by Nick Tirogalos about 4 Dec 1911. [CC Corner Inquests #376 4 Dec 1911; CC Jail Register of Prisoners Bk 2, p. 4]

White, Mrs. Mary and family. Mary White, a 50 year old black woman, lived at 215 Fourth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900 with her six children. She was a widow, born Feb 1850 in Texas, and ran a boarding house. Her children included Eliza born Mar 1887 in MT in school; Susan born Apr 1889 in MT in school; Henry born May 1890 in MT in school; William born 8 Jan 1892 in MT in school; George born Feb 1894 in MT; and Jane E. born May 1896 in MT.[1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

White, Merson. Merson or Marson White, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918. He was born 8 Apr 1900. He worked as a freight handler for the Great Northern Railway in Great Falls, and lived at 1214 Seventh Street South. Henry White, probably his father, at the same address was recorded as nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

White, Mrs. Sadie. Mrs. Sadie White, a 51 year old mixed race black woman, was hairdresser in Great Falls in and lived her place of business in Ward 2 at 1118 Fifth Avenue South in 1920. Sadie was born 3 Jul 1861 at Belvue, IL. Sadie was an active member of the A. M. E. Church and its Ladies Aid society. She died in Great Falls at a local hospital after a long illness 19 May 1936. Her obituary noted that she was a resident of Great Falls for many years and “well known as an excellent cook.” Her funeral services were held 23 May at the A. M. E. Church with Rev. Mr. Smith officiating, and she is buried at Highland Cemetery. [1919 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 19 May 1917, p. 7; GFLD 19 May 1936, p. 8; GFLD 23 May 1936, p. 3]

White, Thomas. Thomas White, a 72 year old black man, died 28 Mar 1909 at the Columbus hospital in Great Falls. Thomas first came to Virginia City in 1864. A barber by profession, he had lived in Belt, Utica, and Moore. His wife and daughter, Miss Libbie White, resided at Three Oaks, MI. His funeral was at the Catholic Church in Belt, and he was buried in Pleasant View Cemetery. [BVTW 1 Apr 1909, p. 5; BVTW 8 Apr 1909]

White, Wellmore. Wellmore White, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 11 Sep 1918 at age 38. He was born 10 Jan 1880. He worked as a teamster for the City of Great Falls. Ida White of Richmond, KY, was recorded as nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

Willes, Mr. Mr. Willes, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and contributed to the A. M. E. Church. [AME Church Minutes]

Williams, Aaron. Aaron Williams, a 55 year old black man, lived in Great Falls and worked for the Great Northern. He lived at the Great Northern Boarding Camp. In Feb 1918, Aaron shot Clifton Lowery in the cinder pits near the Great Northern round house in 1918. [GFLD 13 Feb 1918, p. 3; 1918 GFCD]

Williams, Annie. See Daniel and Annie Williams St. Clair.

Williams, Arthur H. Arthur H. Williams, a black man, was born in Great Falls 12 Jul 1889, the son of Stephen T. and Mary Williams. He was raised by his family in Great Falls at 1004 Sixth Avenue South. In May 1907, Arthur with Rev. & Mrs. Redd and three others from the A. M. E. Church in Great Falls were delegates to the Ministers’ Institute and young people’s meeting of Montana. In 1913 Arthur worked as a carrier for The Tribune and boarded at the family home 1004 Sixth Avenue South. A well known and popular young man, Arthur died at age 26 the morning of 4 Aug 1915, just three weeks after the accidental drowning death of his brother Stephen T., Jr. Arthur’s funeral was held the afternoon of 5 Aug at the A. M. E. Church, Rev. Prince officiating. He was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 13 May 1907, p. 3; CC Jail Register of Prisoners Bk 2, p. 9; 1913 GFCD; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 5 Aug 1915, p 6; GFLD 4 Aug 1915, p. 8]

Williams, Anton. Anton Williams departed Great Falls 1 Aug 1918 with the second black draft contingent for World War I service. [GFTD 2 Aug 1918, p. 12]

Williams, Bert Antonio and Alice. Bert Antonio Williams, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918. He was a rancher and lived with his wife near Great Falls. Bert had one leg missing. He farmed near Great Falls in 1920 and lived with his family in Black Eagle. Bert was born 5 Feb 1878 in KS, and his wife Alice was born in 1884 in CA. Their daughter Clover, born in CO in 1905, was in school in 1920. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Williams, Bill. Bill Williams, a 35 year old black man, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFLD 6 Nov 1917, p. 8]

Williams, “Boxer.” Mr. Williams, a young black man, was a well known boxer in Great Falls. In Oct 1904 Williams defeated “Starlight” at Thorson’s Hall in Little Chicago. [GDLD 14 Oct 1904, p. 7]

Williams, Dan. Dan Williams, a 21 year old black man, worked as a laborer and lived in Great Falls in 1907. [GFTD 14 Dec 1907, p. 4]

Williams, Ed. Ed Williams, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 6 Mar 1889 at Frieson, LA. Ed worked as a laborer for the Polk & Robinson of Great Falls, and lived with his wife and baby at 221 Ninth Avenue South. In Oct 1917, Williams was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for American Lake, WA for training. [WWI Draft; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Williams, Frank. Frank Williams, a back man, lived in Great Falls in 1892, and in Sep of that year, he was elected a lieutenant of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. [GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4]

Williams, George and Sallie Brogden Merchant. George Williams, an early black resident, served as one of four policemen on the Great Falls police force during 1892-93, a remarkable achievement. George Williams of Great Falls was born in 1862 in Mobile AL, the son of Daniel and E. Susan Williams. George earlier served as Sergeant George Williams of Company C, 25th Infantry Regiment. On 13 Nov 1890, he married Sallie Merchant in Great Falls. Sallie, born 1864 at Richmond VA, was the daughter of John and Sarah Woods Brogden. Witnesses were A. M. E. Church members Ed Simms and Mrs. R. Parker. Sallie had earlier been married to Fred Merchant in Fort Benton. George Williams was proprietor of the Big B store at 713 Seventh Avenue South and resided there in 1892. In June 1892 George Williams was appointed to the police force. In another remarkable development, Williams was assigned to patrol the north side of Great Falls, an area that was not open to black residency. In Jun 1894, George was one of ten men from Great Falls who formed a black Masonic Lodge, Sunset Lodge No. 12, and served as an officer. [CC Marriage Register 1890; CC 24 Sep 1894; 1893, 1893 GFCD; GFLD 2 Aug 1892, p. 8; GFLD 6 Jul 1892, p. 5; GFLD 8 Jul 1892, p. 5; GFLW 7 Jun 1894, p. 6]

Williams, George. George Williams, a black man, was a professional beggar in Great Falls in 1901. Both of his legs had been amputated above the knees, and he walked around on the stumps aided by short crutches. [GFLD 31 Aug 1901, p. 4]

Williams, Grace. Grace Williams, a 24 year old black woman lived on the south side of Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Williams, Henry. Henry Williams, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLW 23 Aug 1894, p. 1]

Williams, Henry. Henry Williams, an unmarried 23 year old black man, worked as a laborer and owned a home and lived on Third Street South in Great Falls in 1900. He was born in Sep 1876 in MI. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Williams, Jerry. Jerry Williams, a back man, lived in Great Falls in 1892, and in Sep of that year, he was elected captain of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. [GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4]

Williams, Katie. Katie Williams, a black woman, lived in Great Falls and Helena during 1903. [GFLD 29 Jun 1903, p. 5]

Williams, Margaret. Margaret Williams, a black woman died in Great Falls 13 Aug 1925. The daughter of Stephen and Mary Grimes Williams, Margaret was born in Great Falls 4 Oct 1891 (or Dec 1890). [CC Cemetery Records]

Williams, Moses and Agnes. Moses or Mose Williams, a 50 year old black man, worked as a horse trainer and lived with his wife Agnes in a home that they owned at 1000 Seventh Avenue South in Great Falls in 1900. Moses was born in KY 7 May 1850, the son of Nathaniel and Anna Wilkinson Williams. He was trained at Alexander’s stock farm in KY. His wife Agnes was born in TN in Jan 1845. They were married about 1870 and had no children. Among the first black residents of Great Falls, Moses and Agnes were long time residents. In Sep 1888 Agnes witnessed the marriage of William and Mabel Courtney in Great Falls. In Mar 1889 Moses built a horse training stable on Tenth Street and Seventh Avenue South. In May 1891 Moses paid a Cascade County poll tax. In 1893 Moses was a horse trainer residing at the rear of Seventh Avenue South and Tenth Street. Moses and Agnes contributed money to the A. M. E. Church in 1894. From 1892-96 Agnes worked as a laundress at the Cascade Steam Laundry, living at Eighth Avenue South between Ninth and Tenth Streets. In Aug 1904 Mr. and Mrs. Williams adopted 13 year old Lewis Moore. In 1913 Moses Williams worked as a horse trainer and resided at 926 Seventh Avenue South. In 1920 Moses did job work for the city of Great Falls and was a widower. In his later years, Moses lived the life of a hermit in a hut beside the road to Highland Cemetery. Moses died 1 Jun 1925 at age 75. His funeral was held at George’s chapel 3 Jun with burial at Old Highland Cemetery. In 1925 Agnes, widow of Moses lived at 1000 Seventh Avenue South. See also Lewis Moore. [GFTD 27 Mar 1889, p. 4; CC Poll Tax Book 1891; 1900, 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1892, 1893, 1913, 1916 GFCD; GFLD 23 Aug 1904, p. 5; GFLD 1 Jun 1925, p. 8; GFLD 3 Jun, 1925, p. 3]

Williams, Natt. Natt Williams, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894 and contributed money to the A. M. E. Church. [1894 AME Minutes]

Williams, Oliver. Oliver or Ollie Williams, a black man, lived in Great Falls during the period 1892-93. In Aug 1892 Ollie was elected secretary of the “colored Republican club” in Great Falls. In Sep 1892 he was elected vice president of a newly organized black Republican “Harrison” club. [GFLD 29 Aug 1892, p. 5; GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4; GFLD 17 Oct 1893, p. 4; GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4]

Williams, R. R. Williams, a black man, fought in the Philippines insurrection of 1900. In Aug 1918, he served as drill instructor with the “colored home guard” formed in Great Falls. [GFLD 30 Jul 1918, p. 8]

Williams, Stephen Thomas and Mary Caroline Grimes. Stephen Thomas or S. T. Williams, a 32 year old black man, worked as school janitor and live with his family at 1000 Sixth Avenue South in 1900 in Great Falls. He was born in Jan 1868 in KY. His wife Mary Caroline [NFI] was born in Jun 1870 in KY. In September 1888 Mary witnessed the first black marriage in Great Falls, Henry and Mabel Courtney. Stephen and Mary were married in 1888, and in Jul 1889, when their first son Arthur H. was born, they were working at the Chowen ranch. The Williams had six children who survived childhood: Arthur H.; Margaret M. born Dec 1890 (or 4 Oct 1891) in MT; Stephen T. Jr. born 22 Sep 1896 in MT; Lucile born 9 Oct 1899 in MT; and two unidentified. A daughter born 17 Feb 1892 died in childhood and is buried in Old Highland Cemetery. A son, the first named Stephen T., born in May 1893, died in 1894 and was buried in Old Highland Cemetery. An unnamed son died 27 Oct 1895 at age 4 months from bronchitis. In the 1899 Great Falls School Census, were three children: Steve age 3; Maggie age 8; and Arthur age 10. Mary Williams died at the Deaconess Hospital in Great Falls 29 Mar 1912 after suffering heart troubles for several weeks. She was survived by her husband; six children in Great Falls; one brother and four sisters in the east. Mrs. Williams left “a host of friends” made during her 24 years in Great Falls. Her funeral was held 2 Apr at the A. M. E. Church with Rev. D. W. Sims officiating. Mary was buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [GFLD 28 Oct 1895; GFTD 23 Sep 1896; 1899 GFSC; 1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1903 GFCD; GFLD 30 Mar 1912, p. 6; GFLD 1 Apr 1912, p. 8; CC Cemetery Records]

Williams, Steven Thomas. and Lucille. After the death of his first wife Mary Caroline, Stephen Thomas Williams, a black man, married Lucille [NFI] before 1915. In 1915, Stephen and Lucille owned a home at 1004 Sixth Avenue South and Stephen worked as a laborer. The year 1915 brought the tragic deaths of sons Stephen Jr. and Arthur H. In 1923 Stephen worked as a furnace repairman and resided in his home. Stephen died 14 Oct 1925 in a local hospital at age 60. His funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church, Rev. G. S. Allen officiating. Stephen’s obituary stated that he was “probably the best known member” of Great Falls’ black community. The obituary also noted that Stephen was employed for various household work by numerous north side families steadily since his arrival in Great Falls more than 30 years ago. He was survived by a son and two daughters, all living in Great Falls. Lucille died several years earlier. [1914, 1915, 1919, 1923, 1925-26 GFCD; GFLD 15 Oct 1925, p. 2]

Williams Jr., Stephen Thomas. Stephen Thomas. Williams Jr., a black man, boarded with his father at 1004 Sixth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1913. He was born in Sep 1896 in Great Falls. During the afternoon of 19 Jul 1915, drowned in a pond just east of the railroad track and about a mile above the county poor farm. Two boys with him tried to save Stephen by holding out a willow but could not. His funeral was held 21 Jul at George’s with Rev. Prince of the A. M. E. officiating. He is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. [1913 GFCD]

Williams, Thomas S. Thomas S. Williams, a 52 year old black man, worked as a laborer for the city and lived in a house he owned at 1000 Sixth Avenue South. Williams was born in KY about 1868. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Williams, Wiley. Wiley Williams, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1902. [GFLD 25 Aug 1902, p. 8]

Williams, William B. and Mollie Thompson Stokes. William Williams, a black man, worked as a cook for the railroad and lived on the south side in Great Falls. He was born 1873 in MO, the son of Thomas and Amanda Williams. He was a widower from a previous marriage. On 26 Sep 1905 in Great Falls, William married Mollie Thompson Stokes, the widow of H. D. Stokes. Mollie was born about 1870 in KY, the daughter of George and Eliza Thompson. In 1910 William lived with his wife Mollie in Great Falls. Mollie died the evening of 30 Jan 1913 in Great Falls at age 51. Her funeral was held at the A. M. E. Church 2 Feb with Rev. D. W. Sims officiating. She is buried at Old Highland Cemetery. In 1916 Williams served as President of the Ozark Club and resided at 1118 Fifth Avenue South. [1910 Census MT Cascade Co.; GFLD 31 Jan 1913, p. 6; GFLD 3 Feb 1913, p. 6; CC Marriage Licenses Book 5, No. 3184; 1916 GFCD]

Williams, William. William Williams, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 12 Sep 1918 at age 42. He was born 17 Feb 1876. He worked as a porter for the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls, and lived at 211 Fifth Street South. Ray Walker of 313 Third Street South was recorded as nearest relative. [WWI Draft]

Willis, John. John Willis, a back man, lived in Great Falls in 1892, and in Sep of that year, he was elected treasurer of a newly organized Republican “Harrison” club. From 1891-93 he lived in a shack next to Mrs. Hattie Jones at Third Avenue South between Second and Third Streets. Willis kept a restaurant and cooked at 115 First Avenue South. [GFLD 28 Sep 1892, p. 4; GFLD 7 Nov 1891, p. 5; 1893 GFCD]

Willis, Mary. See Posey, Frank W. N. and Mary Willis.

Willis, P. P. Willis, a 45 year old black man, worked as a porter on the railroad and boarded at the home of John Taylor at 708 Eighth Avenue South. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Williston/Wilson, Moses. Moses Williston (or Wilson), a black man, joined Charles M. Meek in stampeding from Great Falls to the Klondike gold rush in Jan 1898. [GFTD 20 Jan 1898, p. 4; GFTD 21 Jan 1898, p. 3]

Willmore, Minnie. Minnie Willmore, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1911. [GFTD 9 Dec 1911, p. 6]

Wilson, Charles. Charles Wilson, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1897. [GFLD 1 Apr 1897, p. 4]

Wilson, “Curley.” “Curley” Wilson, a black man, lived on the south side of Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Wilson, Gertrude. See Taylor, John A. and Gertrude (Fannie) Wilson.

Wilson, Grant. Grant Wilson, a 27 year old black soldier, was stationed at Fort Missoula with the 25th Infantry Regiment. He was discharged for disability caused by consumption. He came to Great Falls for medical treatment, and showed some improvement, but died about 19 Nov 1892 at the home of W. H. Courtney, 312 Third Avenue South. [GFTD 20 Nov 1892, p. 5]

Wilson, Harry. Harry Wilson, a black man, lived in Great Falls on the south side in 1918. [GFLD 21 Jan 1918, p. 8]

Wilson, Hattie. Hattie Wilson, a black woman born about 1874 at Clinton, IA, lived in Great Falls in the early 1900s. In 1903 she lived at 208 Third Avenue South. The next year she lived at 117 Second Street South and on 17 Dec 1904, Hattie Wilson died at the Columbus Hospital. Funeral services were held at the A. M. E. Church 19 Dec, and she was interred at Old Highland Cemetery. [1903 GFCD; GFTD 18 Dec 1904, p. 4; CC Cemetery Records]

Wilson, Jennie. Jennie Wilson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 12 Nov 1916]

Wilson, Margaret. Margaret Wilson, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1916. [GFTD 17 Mar 1916, p. 6]

Wilson, Mary. Mary Wilson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1903. [GFLD 26 Jun 1903, p. 8]

Wilson, Minnie. Minnie Wilson, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1911. [GFTD 29 Nov 1911]

Wilturner, J. J. Wilturner, a black man, arrived in Great in Sep 1909. [GFTD 17 Sep 1909, p. 10]

Wimes, Mrs. Dollie J. Mrs. Dollie J. (aka Claudia) Wimes, a black woman, resided in Rosebud alley in Great Falls in 1903. She had sent her eight year old son, Leroy, to Spokane to the care of an aunt, but he returned to Great Falls in January 1903. Her husband, James A. Wimes, did not live with the family and last known in Denver in 1900. [GFLD 12 Jan 1903, p. 5; GFLD 17 Jan 1903, p. 8]

Wimes, Master Leroy. See his mother, Wimes, Mrs. Dollie J.

Winburn, Roy C. and Mollie L. Simms Monroe. See also Frank and Mollie Simms Monroe. Roy C. Winburn, a young black man, was born in Fort Buford, ND 8 Jul 1894, the son of Alfred and Ida Jones Winburn. His father served with the 10th Cavalry and was assigned Fort Assiniboine while Roy was a child. Roy came to Great Falls in 1912 and worked for the Great Northern railroad for about 30 years, 25 years as a baggage mailman at the station. On 25 Nov 1915 in Great Falls, Roy married Mollie Simms Monroe of Great Falls with H. R. Rosemond of the A. M. E. church officiating. In 1915, Roy played shortstop on the Rainbow Colored Club baseball team. Mollie was born in 1890 in Great Falls, the daughter of Ed and Elizabeth Miller Simms. In 1917 Roy and Millie lived with the Ed Simms family at 519 Sixth Avenue South. In Oct 1917 Roy Winburn was called up for military service as part of the fourth draft, and first black, contingent of Cascade County. This black contingent of seven Great Falls men departed 27 Oct for training at American Lake, WA. Roy was sent overseas and suffered combat wounds from a gas attack. In 1919 he returned to his family in Great Falls. In 1920 the Winburns were in the household of father-in-law Ed Simms at 519 Sixth Avenue South. Roy worked as a porter with wife Mollie/Molly, and daughter Garneil born 1908 in Great Falls. Mollie passed away at a local hospital 17 Jan 1946 after being in poor health for a year. Her funeral was held at O’Connor’s 24 Jan with Rev. R. A. Washington of the A. M. E. Church officiating. She was buried at Highland Cemetery, and was survived by a son Ben; a sister, Mrs. Gertrude Sparks of Sacramento; a brother, Ed Simms of Portland; six grandchildren and one great grandchild. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 11, No. 7136; 1920 Census MT Cascade; CC Cemetery Records; GFLD 18 Jan 1946, p. 3; GFLD 20 Oct 1917; GFLD 27 Oct 1917]

Winburn, Roy C. and Irene. After the death of his wife, Mollie L. Simms Winburn, in 1946, Roy C. Winburn, a black man, married Irene [NFI]. He continued to work for the Great Northern railroad, and in 1948 he was promoted to baggage agent. On 27 Aug 1951, Roy Winburn, of 711 Eighth Avenue South, passed away. His funeral was held at O’Connor’s with Rev. E. Chappell officiating. He was buried with military honors, under direction of the veterans’ council, on Line A NE Veteran’s plot at Highland Cemetery. Surviving him were his wife, Irene; a son, Ben of Great Falls; two brothers, Gus of Los Angeles, and Sam of Havre; a sister Daisey Pasquelle of Havre; three grandchildren and two great grandchildren. [GFTD 28 Aug 1951, p. 9; GFLD 29 Aug 1951, p. 18; GFLD 28 Aug 1951, p. 1; CC Cemetery Records]

Winfield, Ella. Ella Winfield, a black woman, lived in Great Falls in 1917. [GFTD 7 Sep 1917, p. 6]

Winston, Cornelia Grimes. Mrs. Cornelia Grimes Winston, was a black woman, born Mar 1843 in MS, and living in Great Falls in 1900 with the David Knott family at 711 Eighth Avenue South. Cornelia was born about 1863 in TN. After the death of her husband Edward, Cornelia came from Tennessee in 1893 to live with the Knott family in Great Falls. In 1896 she lived with the Knott family and worked as a cook. That year she went to Cairo, IL to visit her mother, Mrs. Catherine Grimes, who then came to Great Falls. Cornelia, was the mother of Irene D. Smith, wife of Charles F. Smith. She also was a sister of Katie Winston Knott. In 1903 Cornelia still lived with her sister Katie. In 22 Oct 1903 Cora passed away after a long bout with stomach cancer. Her funeral was held 23 Oct at the A. M. E. Church, Rev. Benjamin McCully officiating, and she was interred at Old Highland Cemetery. Her passed marked the end of four generations of her family living together in Great Falls. [1900 Census MT Cascade Co.; CC 24 Sep 1894; CC Cemetery Records; 1896, 1901, 1903 GFCD; GFLD 22 Oct 1903, p. 5; CC Reg Deaths]

Winston, Miss Irene D. See Mrs. Irene D. Winston Smith.

Winters, Thomas. Thomas Winters, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1894. [GFLW 23 Aug 1894, p. 1]

Wood, Lillie. Lillie Wood, a black woman, lived on the lower South side of Great Falls in 1901. In Nov 1901 Lillie moved on to Fort Benton. [GFLD 24 Sep 1901, p. 5; GFLD 2 Nov 1901, p. 5]

Woods, Edward and Thelma Van Dyke Snead. Edward Woods, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1914-16. Edward was born 1885 in TX, the son of John and Ella Smith Woods. On 31 Oct 1914 in Great Falls, Edward married Thelma Van Dyke Snead of Great Falls. Thelma was born 1884 in KY, the daughter of Hayden and Jane Reasor Van Dyke. Thelma was previously married to _____ Snead. [CC Marriage Licenses Book 10, No. 6567; GFTD 29 May 1916, p. 12]

Woods, James. James Woods, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 11 Sep 1918 at age 34. He was born 16 Nov 1883. He worked as a cook for the Bute to Havre Division of the Great Northern Railroad at Great Falls, and lived with presumed wife, Mamie Woods, at 305 1/2 Ninth Avenue South. [WWI Draft]

Woodson, Stella. Stella Woodson, a black woman lived in Great Falls in 1896. [GFLD 5 Jun 1896, p. 4; GFLD 17 Jun 1896, p. 4]

Wright, Grace. Grace Wright, a black woman, lived on the south side of Great Falls in 1915. [GFLD 21 Jul 1915, p. 8]

Wright, Floyd. Floyd Wright, a black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls on 5 Jun 1917. He was born 5 Jun 1893 at New Orleans, LA. He worked as cook for the Great Northern Railway and resided at the Great Northern Commissary near the Station. [WWI Draft]

Wright, Mr and Mrs. Harry. Harry Wright, a black man, lived in a shack at 621 Fourth alley south in 1916. His wife used the following alias: Florence Kane, Euclid Evans, Julia Evans, Lucille Wellington. [GFLD 21 Jan 1916, p. 8]

Wynn, Emma. Emma Wynn, a 33 year old black woman, worked as a dress maker and lived in Ward 2 at 300 Fifth Avenue South in Great Falls in 1920. She was born about 1887 in KY. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.]

Yancey, Charlie Henry and Minnie C. Charlie Henry Yancey, a 48 year old black man, worked as a janitor at the Alcazar Theatre and lived at 604 Eighth Ave. North in 1915. In that year he played Second Base on the Rainbow Colored Club baseball team. In 1919-20 he rented a house and lived with his family at 912 Fifth Avenue South. He was born about 1872 in ME. His family consisted of wife Minnie C. born about 1877 in KY; a daughter Sadie age 12 born in KY; a daughter age 10 born in KY; a daughter Thelma age 6 born in MT. In Nov 1917 Sadie performed a reading at a concert at the A. M. E. Church for the benefit of the church fund. The two older girls were in school in 1920. Also rooming with the Yanceys in 1919 was Charlie’s brother, Walter. [1915 GFCD; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD]

Yancey, Miss Sadie. See Charlie H. and Minnie C. Yancey.

Yancey, Walter. Walter Yancey, a 44 year old black man, worked as a janitor at the Alcazar Theatre and lived with his brother, Charlie Yancey, at 912 Fifth Avenue South in 1919-20. [1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD]

Yost, Frank. Frank Yost, a mixed race black man, registered for the World War I Draft in Great Falls 12 Sep 1918 at age 43. He was born 26 Apr 1875 in MD. He worked as janitor at the Alcazar Theatre at 209 Central Avenue, and lived at 912 Fifth Avenue South. His nearest relative was recorded as his brother, Charles Yancey at the same address. In 1920 Frank owned a 676 acre farm near Great Falls and lived in Black Eagle. He was a widower. Two men boarded with him. [WWI Draft; 1920 Census MT Cascade Co.; 1919 GFCD]

Yule, Al. Al Yule, a black man, lived in Great Falls in 1898. [GFLD 20 Jun 1898, p. 4]

4 comments:

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  2. I am so thankful for your research and compilations here. I am sending others your way. This is fascinating stuff. We have actually communicated when I was first doing research on Mattie Castner, Sarah Bickford and Mattie Byers Novotny Welch. (She is buried in Arlington National Cemetary and seems to outlive most of her children). Thanks again.

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  3. Thank you so much for publishing this - I was doing research on the Knott family and this was a wonderful find.

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  4. Wow--this is a lot of good information. We are tracing our ancestors that left the VA, NC, SC, and MD areas for the west. Our website address is http://familiesofthesandhills.tribalpages.com/.

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